对外经济贸易大学考研辅导-翻译概论-翻译理论

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对外经贸大学考研辅导-翻译概论-翻译理论
一、     翻译的基础
(一)翻译的标准、
1898年严复提出“信达雅”
译文忠实于原文,要明白晓畅,和准确、精炼。
(二)翻译的过程
理解和表达
对译者的要求:
(1)较高的母语素养:(2)灵活的翻译技巧;(3)丰富的文化知识;(4)勤于苦练、勤于思考的学习精神;(5)善于总结前人和自己的翻译经验;(6)严谨、细致、切实的作风。
(三)翻译的方法
直译和意译
直译是指不仅表达原文内容,而且还保留原文表达的方式,诸如保留原文使用的比喻、原文的形象、原文的民族特色等,EX:Hope for the best, but prepare for the worst.
意译指不拘泥于原文的表达形式、形象、民族特色等,只是将原文的意义传达出来的翻译EX: Care killed a cat.(忧虑伤身)
One man’s meat is another man’s poison.
直译:一个人的肉可能成为另外一个人的毒药。
意译:萝卜青菜,各有所爱。
直译没有理解英文的愿意。

二、    商务英语翻译的方法与技巧
(一)词语翻译
1、    一词多义
They were advised to buy some treasury as a riskless investment. (金融财务 国库券)
The Treasury issued this kind of bond during the war. (政府机构 财政部)
2、    注意词语感情色彩
A foreign business representative, neither overly sympathetic toward China nor overly disposed against it, would need to be convinced on a number of scores before he could responsibly commit his firm to taking an equity position in a Chinese enterprise.
一个对中国既无过度好感又无过度厌恶感的企业代表,在代表公司在华投资、与一定中国企业形成平等股权关系之前,必须考虑许多因素。
3、    调整表达方式,使译文符合逻辑
Assuming the laboratory tests go well, and you can quote us a competitive price, we’d certainly be able to place more substantial orders on a regular basis.
若实验室测试合格,且你们给我们的报价具有竞争力,我们一定会定期大量订货的。
(二)增词法
在翻译时按词义和句法的需要,增加一些词来更忠实、通顺的表达原文的思想内容。
1、    增词——针对语义修辞
释说。原文隐含了某层意思,译成中文时汉语不做说明宜引起误解。
Rising waters will lap at the foundations of old money in the Wall Street and the new money towers of Silicon Valley.
华尔街上那些资本雄厚的证券所和银行、硅谷一带那些迅速致富的高新科技公司都会被升高的海水淹到大门口。
2、    增词——表达清晰和自然
Sino-British links have multiplied-political, commercial, educational, cultural, defence, science and technology.
中英两国在政治、商务、文化、国防和科技等方面的联系成倍地增加了。
3、    增词——沟通不同文化
This great scientist was born in New England.
这位伟大的科学家出生在美国东北部的新英格兰。
4、    名词复数翻译的增词法
汉语名词没有形式手段表示其单复数的区分,翻译时通过增词体现出来。
Nations have utilized different economic resources; people have developed different skills.
不同的国家使用不同的经济来源;不同的人拥有不同的技能。
5、    不能任意添加,坚持忠实原文的原则
Economic and technological cooperation and trade and investment liberalization are closely linked and mutually reinforcing. The rapid and dynamic advance of science and technology all over the world today has become the decisive factor behind the development of productive forces and has exerted a profound impact on world economy and social life.
译文1:经济技术合作和贸易投资自由化紧密结合,应该相互促进。当代科学技术迅猛发展,已经成为推动生产力发展具有重要意义的因素,也对世界经济和社会生活都产生了深刻的影响。
译文2:经济技术合作和贸易投资自由化一直以来紧密结合,应该相互促进。当代世界——尤其是中国——科学技术迅猛发展,已经产生了巨大的影响,成为推动生产力发展具有的重要因素,有决定意义,对世界经济和社会生活都产生了深刻的影响。
(三)减词法
省略原文自然、必不可少的,但在译文中多余的词汇,使译文流畅自然,符合汉语表达习惯。
同英语相比,汉语中代词和连接词使用得很少,能省略的代词和连接词一般都不在句子中出现,因此,英译汉时,应该避免在句子中过多使用代词和连接词。
  To avert the danger of major defaults and to restore security to the economic systems, western bankers and governments will have to ensure that they are imposing reasonable repayment terms on developing countries, terms that will not provoke revolution or chaos.
    为了防止发生重大的宣布无力偿还债务事件,并使经济体制恢复巩固,西方各国金融机构和政府必须确保对各发展中国家强制实行公平合理的还债条件,确保这些条件不至于引发革命或混乱。
(四)重复翻译法
达到三个目的:(1)表达强调语势;(2)表达生动活泼;(3)表达明确。
   英语中常用指代法、换词法、替代法、省略法、保留介词法、紧缩法等方法来避免重复。Mary is standing at the door, with her hand in her pocket.(指代法)
We talked of ourselves, of our prospects, of the journey, of the weather, of each other-of everything but our host and hostess.(保留介词法)
He was particularly interested in the articles on and by Lu Xun.(紧缩法)
汉语缺乏与英语想象的关系代词、关系副词等一类的组合手段,所以汉语的句子不宜太长。汉语里一个复杂思想,往往分成几个短句来表示,各短句之间的联系,有时靠“意合“,有时靠重复,这样才能承上启下,衔接自然。
A more realistic approach toward international specialization is that of comparative advantage. This concept says that a nation has a comparative advantage in an item if it can produce it more efficiently than alternative products.
参与国际分工的另一更为现实的做法是采取比较优势的做法。比较优势是指家人一个国家生产某种产品比生产其他产品的效率高,那么它就具有生产该产品的比较优势。
(五)词性转换翻译
将源语中属于莫中词性的词语翻译成目的语中属于另一种词性的词语的翻译方法。
1、    转译成动词
英语中具有动作意味的名词、形容词、副词、介词在翻译成汉语时常转译成动词。
Man is becoming fully aware of the importance of safeguarding environment.
人类正越来越充分地意识到保护环境的重要性。
You are ignorant of the duties you undertake in this insurance policy.
你完全不懂根据该保险单你应承担什么责任。
2、    转译成名词
由名词派生的动词、部分形容词及副词译成汉语时转换成名词。
Formality has always characterized their relationship.
他们之间的关系始终有一个特点,就是以礼相待。
The increasing number of students poses many new problems for the universities.
学生人数的增加给大学带来了许多新问题。
3、    转译为形容词
形容词派生的名词及一些副词在译成汉语时多需转换为形容词。
The security of buying the products of the world famous business companies was wonderful.
购买世界著名商务公司的产品安全,这种感觉好极了。
Our president had prepared meticulously for his journey to Europe.
我们的总裁为他的欧洲之行作了十分周密的准备。
4、    转译为副词
部分介词短语、名词和形容词在译成汉语时转换为副词。
He looked at the Letter of Credit given to him by ABC group in surprise.
他吃惊地看着ABC集团开给他的信用证。
(六)虚实转化
1、抽象名词虚实转化
许多抽象名词在翻译成汉语时都需要增加范畴词或者引申为具体所指代的事物。
Over the period from 1987 to 1996, many of the distortions and rigidities of the former central planning system were eliminated and market forces came to play an increasingly important role in economic decision making.
自1978年到1996年这段时间里,在中央计划经济体制下以往的那些扭曲的和死板的做法有许多都被摒弃了,市场力量在经济决策中起到越来越重要的作用。
2、副词虚实的转化
No wonder the multinational corporations have been growing fantastically and now dominate many sections of the international market.
难怪跨国公司一直以惊人的速度发展并且控制着国际市场的许多领域。
3、    形容词的虚实转化
Throughout the past two decades, GATT has been increasingly preoccupied with the trading problems and needs of the developing countries, which account for more than two-thirds of its membership.
在过去二十年,关贸总协定越来越关注占成员国2/3以上的发展中国家的贸易问题和需要。
(七)从句的翻译
1、定语从句的翻译
定从分限制性定从和非限制性定从,前者限制意义强,或者若,绝大部分是后置。而在汉语中,所有作定语的成分都要前置,不涉及限制意义的强弱。因此,翻译时,限制与否不起非常重要的作用,关键在于译文符合国人语感。
汉语中不太使用长定语,如果英语中定语过长,则不宜译成汉语中的定语,需采用其他方法处理,若英语定从较短,则译成汉语的定语。
It was found that a country benefits more by producing goods it can make most cheaply and buying those goods that other counties can make at lower costs than by producing everything it needs within its own border.
人们发现,一个国家只生产成本耗费最低的产品,而从其他国家购买它们用较低成本生产的产品,这比在国内生产自己所需要的一切产品要划算得多。
(分析:限制性定从在翻译成汉语时往往被翻译成汉语里的定语,也就是“…的”字结构,再将这种“…的”字结构置于它所修饰的名词之前。)
In addition to visible trade, which involves the importing and exporting of tangible goods, there is also invisible trade, which involves the exchange of services between nations.
除了这种进口商品的有行贸易外,还有一种国与国之间进行交换服务的无形贸易。
As imports are financed by exports, which help to gain foreign currency to import the badly needed raw materials, technology and equipment, the capacity of a nation to import obviously depends on its export performance.
由于进口依靠出口来融资,出口获得的外汇可用来进口急需的原材料、技术及设备,因此一个国家的进口能力显然取决于出口业绩的好坏。
(分析:对于关系代词的前指,在翻译时有两种处理方法:一是使用名词将关系代词所指代的名词重复一遍,二是使用诸如他、她、它、他们、它们之类的代词来指代)
The pragmatic and realistic approach which has begun to emerge over the last few years, has resulted in practical results which provide an opportunity for the organization to show its potential and to develop its capacity.
前几年开始出现的务实的作风,已经收到实际的效果,联合国因此有机会展示其潜力,发挥其能力。
2、同位语从句的翻译
同位语从句有that 引导,从句所阐述的内容是它前面那个概况性名词的内容的具体化,因此翻译时,先把同位语从句前面的名词翻译出来,然后在该短语后使用“:”,接着再翻从句本身。第二种方法是在翻译的名词后面加“,”,然后以“即(也就是)”引出从句所承载的信息。
The liberalization debate is a debate over ideas and ideals, and it matters enormously that we spread the message that market liberalization forms part of the answer to the concerns of citizens, rather than being a cause of their misgivings.
自由化的辩论是一场理念与理想的辩论,我们要传播这样的信息:市场自由化是解决公民忧虑的部分答案而不是造成他们担忧的原因。
I will share with the President my conclusion that our two countries are destined to grow together for our mutual benefit and for the benefit of all mankind.
我要把我的结论告诉总统,即为了我们两国人民的利益,为了全人类的利益,我们双方一定会更加亲密。
(八)被动句的翻译
英语被动句的构成“主语(受事)+BE+过去分词”,变体形式为“主语(受事)+GET/BECOME+过去分词”。英语中只要主语是受事,谓语动词就要用被动语态的形式,汉语中只有在不得已的情况下才使用“被”字句,因为“被”字句的使用被认为是很书面化的语言,而且让人感到很别扭。
1、    英语的被动句译成汉语的主动句
(1)原文主语不变,在译句中仍充当主语。
The stocks are mainly issued through a special market in a way similar to that of bond issuance.
股票要通过专门市场来发行,这和发行债券的方法类似。
The economic freedom is provided by breaking up large concentration of power.
由于打破了权利的高度集中,经济获得了自由。
(2)原文的主语在译文中作并与,在必要情况下可适当在译文中添加诸如“人们”“大伙”之类的词做主语。
One must admit that a good deal of discontent is reflected in those statistics.
必须承认,这些统计数字反映了许多不满情绪。
What we did will not be long remembered.
人们不会永远记得我们所作的一切。
(3)译成带表语的主动句
Our profit has already been closely calculated.
我们的利润是经过精确计算得出来的。
(4)常见的“It”为形式主语的句子译法
A、不加主语
It is well-known that gun-power is one of the four great invention of the ancient Chinese people.
众所周知,火药是中国古代四大发明之一。
类似的还有:
It is reported that…         据报道…              
It is said that…             据说…
It is assumed that…         假定…                
It must be admitted that…    必须承认…
It will be seen from this that…  由此可见…   
It is stipulated that…         按照规定…
It has been proved that…     业已证明…     
 It can be foreseen that…    可以预见…
It must be stressed that…     必须着重指出…
   B、可加主语
   It has already been stressed that there is a need to balance the level of customer with the cost of providing that service.
业内已开始强调在客户服务水平和提供服务的成本之间取得平衡是必要的。
2、    英语的别动句译成汉语的被动句
(1)译成“被……”或“给……”的句子
He was fired for his incompetence.
他因不称职被开除了。
(2)译成“遭……”“受……”“挨……”的句子
The U.S. stock market were attacked from the worst one-day crash in modern history on October 19th, 1987, the day which has come to be known as Black Monday.
1987年10月17日,美国股票市场遭到当代史上最惨痛的“一日暴跌”,后来人们称之为“黑色星期一”。
(九)否定和肯定的翻译转换
否定有各种形式:
1、    完全否定
如no, not, never, none, nobody, nothing, neither…nor…etc
2、    部分否定
(1)    在否定谓语的句子中带有all, both, each, every, everyone, everything等不定代词或形容词的情况下
(2)    带有always, totally, often, quite, wholly, enough, everywhere等副词的部分否定。
3、    表象否定
有的否定词与其他词汇连用,形成固定搭配,这种结构上看似否定的形式,其语义接近于否定的否定,表达的是肯定的意义。常用的有cannot…too(表示“再……也不过分”,“越……越……好”),“It is a(an) +形容词+名词+that+表示否定的从句”(表示“再……也会……”),not……because……(“并不是因为……”)等。       
It is a wise man that never makes mistakes.
再聪明的人,也有犯错误的时候。
4、    强调否定
否定词never, no, not, none等,加上“so…as”“at all ”“what ever”等副词的句子。
5、    双重否定
Such a poor state could not possibly have waged a war against its neighbor without the backing from other countries.
这样一个贫穷国家,如果没有他国的支持,根本不可能对邻国发动战争。
6、    含蓄否定
有些词或词组,形式上是肯定,但表达的意义往往是否定的。
(1)    借助动词或动词短语表否定。如fail, deny, miss, lack, refuse, reject, ignore, withhold, defy, be absent, keep from, prevent from, protect from, refrain from,etc.
(2)    借助形容词或形容动词短语表示否定。如free from, short of, little, few, missing, deaf to, dead to, blind to, etc
(3)    借助名词表否定。如absence, omission, scarcity, failure, ignorance, exclusion, etc
The initial element is failure of exclusion: there is no way to prevent people from receiving service even though they have not paid for it.
首要因素是不具有排他性:即使人们不付钱,也无法阻止他们接受该服务。
(4)    借助介词或介短表否定。如beyond, above, beneath, beside, instead of, expect, without, in place of, etc
(5)    借助连词表否定。 如before, but, would rather…than…, rather than, too…to, etc.
     Never count your money before you sold out you stock.
     在没卖出股票前,永远别核算你的盈利。
(6)    借助副词或副词短语表示否定。如no longer, otherwise, etc.
(7)    表示否定的结构。 比较结构:more…than…, rather…than…,other than…, etc
(8)    表示否定的if引导的假设条件句。
   I am sure! If this is English manners.
   我敢肯定,这的确不是英国人的礼仪做法。
7、    否定转译
有时在句子中,否定的对象未必是谓语,而是后面的某个部分。对于否定转译,要仔细辨别否定的对象和内容。
They hadn’t changed because they liked me more, they had changed because I could help fill their wallets.
他们的改变不是因为他们爱我更多了,而是因为我能帮他们挣钱了。
8、    正、反译处理方法
(1)    正说反译
为了符合译入语的习惯,在翻译中将原文中的肯定形式译成否定形式。
Time is what we want most, but what, alas, many use worst.
时间是我们最缺少的,但可叹之至,偏偏许多人最不善于利用。
While the grass grows the horse starves.
远水救不了近火。
(2)    反说正译
为了符合译入语的习惯,在翻译中将原文的否定形式译成肯定形式。
Don’t lose time in selling out your stock.
赶快清理掉你手头上的股票。
It’s no less than a fraud.
这简直是一场骗局。
(3)    选择性反译和强制性反译
选择性反译指可反译可不反译,在意义上没有根本性区别。
I’m quite house bound.
我老师呆在家里。(我可以说是大门不出,二门不迈。)
强制性反译指必须进行的反译,否则译文与原文将出现差异。
You cannot attach too much importance to the matter.
你应该非常重视这件事情。
(十)长难句翻译
长句是英语句子的一个显著特征。长句是在简单句的基础上通过使用较长的修饰语使句子变长,使用从句使句子变复杂。 而这些从句往往又通过引导词与句子成分或其他从句连接,使得整个句子表面上看错综复杂。
了解英文长句的成因是修饰语过多、并列成分多和语言结构层次多后,我们在进行长句的翻译时可以逆向而行,尽量保留长句的思维缜密、句法紧凑连贯的语言特色,有兼顾汉语的习惯,不使译文冗长、拖拉。
具体方法如下:首先,找出主、谓、宾等句子的主干;其次,找出句中所有的谓语结构、非谓语动词、介词短语和从句的引导词,理清关系,分解长句;再次,依据汉语的表达习惯,将译文重新搭配,重新组合;最后,核对原句,润色译文。
翻译时,多采用顺译法、逆译法、分译法和综合法等几种方法。
1、    顺译法
汉语的叙述是按时间顺序进行的,在英语中表示连贯动作的并列句也是如此。另外,有些英语长句的逻辑结构和汉语的表达也比较一致,所以当英语长句的叙述内容与汉语基本一致时,可以按照英文原文的顺序,从前往后进行翻译,这就是顺译法。
It did not take long, however, for man to realize that there were some things he was more capable of doing than others and that it would benefit him to concentrate his efforts on the production of those goods in which he was particularly proficient and leave others to produce the goods that called for skills which he did not possess.

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