对外经济贸易大学英语学院考研-商务英语翻译

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 对外经贸大学英语学院考研-商务英语翻译

 商务英语翻译Chapter 2
Process
1. Comprehension
A. Semantic system
- Conceptual meaning
- Structural meaning
- associated meaning

B. Context
Ex. 1     He didn't marry her because she was rich.

C. Background & special knowledge
Ex. 2    Finally, proper tax planning both from the host country standpoint and the U. S.
standpoint will improve your "keeping money" if, as you anticipate, the joint venture is profitable.
D. Logic
Ex. 3     The market for the (tea) company’s products consisted of young people, women between the ages of 18 and 49, and older people who wanted a warm drink that was caffeine-free.
这家(茶叶)公司的销售对象是,爱喝不含咖啡因热茶的18至49岁的年轻妇女以及49岁以上的顾客。
E. “False friends”
Ex. 4     Wrong Right
a walking skeleton 行尸走肉 骨瘦如柴
to hold one's horse 悬崖勒马 忍耐、观望
to make the blood boil 热血沸腾 怒火中烧
white wine 白酒 白葡萄酒

2. Reproduction
A. Purpose & the target reader
B. Context
Ex. 5  If governments let oil prices rise, people cut down on marginal uses of oil, but
      continue to use it where it is most valuable.
      如果政府听任油价上涨,人们就会减少可用可不用的汽油消费,但仍然把汽油
      用在最需要的地方。
C. Body vs. details
D. Translationese

3. Check-up & polishing
A. Understanding
B. Missing
C. Wrong wording
D. Awkward structures
E. Proof reading – figures, names, time, etc.
F. Format
G. Punctuating
H. Footnotes, etc.

Requirements for translator
A. Language proficiency
B. Background knowledge
C. Experience

Methodology
A. Conversion
- Parts of speech, word order, etc.
- Structure
- Form and content
- Perspectives
- Voices, etc.

B. Compensation
- Amplification & extension
- Omission & merging
- Splitting
- Replacing
- Shifting

Ex. 6     The use of interpreters slows substantially the pace of negotiations.
Version 1. 译员的使用大大减慢谈判的速度。
Version 2. 使用译员会大大减慢谈判进度。

Ex. 7    We in Zambia would like to build a color-blind society where all can have equal opportunities.
我们要在赞比亚建立一个不因肤色而互相歧视的社会,一个人人机会均等的社会。
 
Chapter 3 Conversion of Parts of Speech
1. Comparative study & further analysis:
English             Chinese
Noun                名词
Verb                动词
Adjective            形容词
Adverb                副词
Numeral                数词
Pronoun                代词
Preposition        介词(方位词)
Conjunction        连词
Interjection        叹词
1. Conversion of nouns
A. Derivation
Ex.1     The new situation requires the formation of a new strategy.
新形势要求制定新战略
B. Collocation
Ex.2     I have the honour to inform you that your application has been accepted.
我荣幸地通知阁下,您的申请已被接受。
2. Conversion of prepositions
A. Scope and frequency
Ex.4    …and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
……民有、民治、民享的政府将永存于世。
3. Conversion of verbs
A. Derivation
Ex.5     As long as the returns from new stores were higher than its
                building costs, McDonald’s profited in ways that none of its
                competitors could match.
只要开办新店的收益大于其建设成本,麦当劳就能以任何竞争对手都望尘莫及的方式赚取利润。
B. Voice-pattern
Ex.6     The question of United States arms sales to Taiwan was not settled in the course of negotiations between the two countries on establishing diplomatic relations.
美国向台湾出售武器的问题在两国谈判建交的过程中并没有得到解决。
4. Conversion of adjectives
Ex. 7     The American people hailed the program for greater Sino-US trade.
美国人欢迎这个扩大中美贸易的计划。
Ex. 6     The car is due for a new name before American introduction.
这种汽车在向美国出口之前需要起一个新的名字。
5. Conversion of adverbs
Ex. 9     When the crops are in, they start autumn sowing.
庄稼收完后,他们开始秋种。
Ex. 10     The paper said editorially that China has successfully survived a worldwide financial crisis.
该报的社论说,中国成功地经受住了一场波及全球的金融危机。
6. Conversion of articles
Ex. 11     EDI is one way of doing business today -- it will be the way of doing business tomorrow.
今天,电子数据交换技术是进行贸易的一种方式,明天,它将成为开展贸易的唯一方式。
7. Conversion of connectives
Ex. 12    Let them call themselves Taiwan and we will invite them.
只要他们称自己为台湾,我们就邀请他们参加。


Chapter 4 Restructuring

1. Choice of subject
Ex. 1    Fear of the bombers had cleared the bay.
     因为害怕敌机轰炸,海湾里的船都开走了。

2. Sentence reorganizing
      A. Word order
Ex. 2    From $6.1 billion in 1981, the U.S. deficit with Asia's four tigers last year reached $37 billion, or 22% of the total U.S. trade deficit.
美国与亚洲四小虎的贸易逆差在1981年为61亿美元,去年却高 达370亿美元,占美国全部贸易逆差的22%。
      B. Inverted order
 Ex. 3    Little did I then know the meaning of war and what it was in reality.
当时我确实不太懂得战争的意义以及战争实际上是怎么回事。
      C. Restructuring
 Ex. 4    The boy was watching the steam rising from the kettle when he conceived an idea.
那男孩在观察蒸汽从水壶里冒出来的时候产生了一个念头。

3. Conversion of attributive clauses
A. Into adverbials of
- Reasons
Ex. 5    Their basic fear is of the slack up of protectionism, and above all, American                                                  
capital outflow which to them means job outflows.
令他们最为恐慌的是放松贸易保护主义的做法,尤其害怕美国资本外流,因为对他们来说,资本外流就等于工作机会外流。 
- Condistions
Ex. 6    They amounted to near twenty thousand pounds, which to pay would have ruined me.
其总数几乎达两万英镑,假如让我赔偿,我非倾家荡产不可。
- Purposes
Ex. 7  Unfortunately, every country in the world has trade barriers which are designed to protect its economy against international market forces.
遗憾的是,世界各国都设置了贸易壁垒,以保护本国经济免受国际市场力量的冲击。
- Results
Ex. 8  There was something original, independent, and heroic about the plan that
       pleased all of them.
这个方案有创见,有特色,而且有魄力,因而博得了他们所有人的欢心。
- Concession
Ex. 9  Moscow refused to interpret as a flat rejection the White House reaction to the Russian proposal, which President George Bush had termed inadequate.
尽管布什总统认为俄国的提议是不合适的,但莫斯科拒绝将白宫的反应解释为断然反对这一提议。
B. Into appositives
Ex. 10  All the while, George Bush, who was ultimately to benefit from the try that failed, sat silently by, a nearly forgotten spectator.
在此期间,乔治•布什坐在一旁,一言不发,几乎成了一个被人遗忘的旁观者,他却最终从这场失败的试探中获得了好处。




4. Conversion of adverbials
A. of time into
- that of concession
Ex. 11   ... a joint venture that did not work out may be profitable for the partners when broken up if the right decisions were made on the purchase of real estate or the acquisition of the right equipment.
如果当初在购买不动产或适用设备时决策正确,那么合资企业即使倒闭了,对合资伙伴来说可能仍然有利可图。
- that of condition
Ex. 12  When a representative exceeds his allotted time, the President shall call him to order without delay.
如果哪位代表发言超过了规定时间,主席应立即敦促他遵守规定。
- others
Ex. 13  Most forecasters believe that unemployment will rise to about 9 percent before it eases next year.
大多数观察家认为,失业率将上升到大约百分之九,到明年才会有所缓和。
B. of conditions into that of concession
Ex. 14  If he actually did commit the crime, he wouldn't be punished.
他即便真的犯了罪,也不会受到惩罚的。

5. Conversion of comparatives
A. Conversion of the original degree
Ex. 15  When it comes to reporting earnings, the U.S. companies have about as much
       credibility these days as the judges of Olympic figure skating.
说到如何报告收益,美国公司如今的可信度大概同奥运会上的花样滑冰裁 
判差不多。
Ex. 16  Exporting countries, in general, are expanding cotton exports this season as
          much as their cotton supplies will permit.
一般来说,出口国本季度正在尽其供应能力所及扩大棉花出口。
B. Conversion of the comparative degree expressing
- Difference
Ex. 17  Many dealers face the future with more confidence than they have exhibited in the years past.
许多经销商对未来的信心比过去几年更强了。
-Comparison
Ex. 18      The officials here said the present differences were due less to any ideological
reason than to nationalistic feelings.
这里的官员说,目前的分歧主要不是出于意识形态方面的原因而是由民族
主义情绪造成的。
- Identity
Ex. 19     I don't think that Russian policy is formed that way any more than our policy is formed.
我认为,俄国的政策不是这样制定的,正如我们的政策也不是这样制定的。
- Preference
Ex. 20      In fact, you could say that McDonald’s is really more of a landlord than a
conventional fast-food chain.
事实上可以这样认为,与其说麦当劳是一家传统的快餐连锁公司,还不如
说它是一个房地产商。
- Emphasis
Ex. 21      Reagan was more than cordial to Ford as they met for 65 minutes.
在六十五分钟的会谈中,里根对福特表现得格外亲切。
- Emphamism
Ex. 22      The President had done no more than support "continuing study of the
problem".
总统仅仅是支持“继续研究这个问题”而已。
6. Conversion of superlative degree expressing
- Emphasis
Ex. 23      It is a most important problem.
这是一个十分重要的问题。(比较:the most important)
Ex. 24      I should do it with the greatest pleasure.
我非常乐意做这件事。
7. Multiples in translation
A. Increase (base - 1)
N times as many (much) as,
N times more than,
increase N times/folds, increase by (to) N times,等等。
  Ex. 25      The attitude of the consumer toward your product may change if he feels ice
  cream is twice as expensive at home as it is somewhere else.
  如果消费者发现在本国买冰激凌比别的地方贵一倍的话,他对你的产品的态
  度可能会发生变化。
B. Decrease
reduce (decrease) N times as many (much) as,
N times fewer (less) than,
decrease N times, decrease by N times, N-fold reduction,等等
Ex. 26      The product cost decreased three times.
生产成本降到原来的三分之一(或:减少了三分之二)。
8. Conversion of appositives
Ex. 27      Simply by raising the price of oil, a good we import in large quantities, he can damage the U.S. economy.
他只需提高油价就能损害美国经济,因为石油是我国大宗进口的商品。



 Chapter 5 Conversion of Voices

1. Frequency of passives in English vs. Chinese
2 Conversion of passive voice into active
A. with passive implication
Ex. 1     If understanding prevails, UNCTAD is in a position to replace confrontation with agreement; it cannot be put off.
若能普遍达成谅解,联合国贸发会议就能用协议取代对抗;这项工作不能再拖延下去了。
Ex. 2     The French supervisor will ordinarily be found in the middle of his subordinates
where he can control them.
在法国,主管人员的办公位置通常位于部下的办公位置之中,以便管理。
B. with emphatic structure
Ex. 3    Our International Club was founded a year ago to help foreign businessmen in this city meet together.
我们这个国际俱乐部是在一年前成立的,目的是便于本城的外国商人聚会。
C. with non-subject structure
Ex. 4     Machinery for the just settlement of international differences must be founded.
(…)必须建立公正解决国际分歧的机构。
It must be admitted that ...         (…)必须承认……
It may be safely said that ...         (…)可以有把握地说……
It is reported that ...                  据(…)报道……
It will be seen from this that ...     (…)由此可见……
D. with subjects
Ex. 5    Americans are cushioned against rising commodity prices by the strong dollar.
美元的坚挺减缓了商品价格上涨给美国人造成的压力。
It was told that ...                 有人曾经说过……
It is sometimes asked that ...         人们有时会问……
It is well known that ...             众所周知……
It is claimed that ...                 有人宣称……
3 Retaining passives
A. typical passive
Ex. 6     Imagine that one or other continent is left out or forgotten, reduced to its poverty and its disorder, what will happen to the others?
设想一下,假如这块或那块大陆被忽视或遗忘,变得贫穷、混乱,其他大陆将会发生什么情况呢?
A. with converted verbs
Ex. 7    Foreign concessions would be cancelled if they did not accord with the law.
向外国人提供的特许权若不符合法律将予以取消。
4. Conversion of active into passive
Ex. 8     The paper said that foreign agents had infiltrated the then government and engineered the president's overthrow.
该报称,有外国特工打入了当时的政府内部,策划推翻总统。
Ex. 9     His acceptance of bribes led to his arrest.
他因受贿而被捕。


 Chapter 6
Conversion Between Content and Form

1. Conversion of abstract into concrete
A. addition of concrete words
Ex. 1     It called for creation of a defense corps to take charge of anti-subversion in peacetime.
人们呼吁成立一支国防部队来负责和平时期的反颠覆工作。
Ex. 2     I committed myself to make up for past mistakes to fight corruption and injustices and to form a national government to carry out free election.
我决心弥补过去的错误,同贪污腐化和不公正现象作斗争,并成立一个全民政府以实行自由选举。
B. paraphrasing
Ex. 3     A conference of developing countries and richer industrialized states has convened in Washington, attempting to identify priorities for improving life among poor areas of the world.
一些发展中国家和较富有的工业化国家在华盛顿举行了会议,试图确定在改善世界贫穷地区人民生活中首先应做的事情。(或“当务之急”)
Ex. 4     The hard truth is that we are not owed a say in the world today on what we have been.
严酷的事实是,我们不能靠老本在当今世界上取得发言权。
2. Conversion of concrete into abstract
A. replacing
Ex. 5     Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.
假如让我决定我们是要一个没有言论自由的政府,还是要一个言论自由而无政府的国家,我会毫不犹豫地选择后者。
B. paraphrasing
Ex. 6     Among these gift horses, it is the decline in interest rates that has done the most to foster the FORTUNE 500's bottom-line bonanza.
在这些天赐良机当中,令《财富》500强企业财源滚滚的莫过于利率的下调。
Ex. 7     Japan’s exports are expected to exceed her imports by about 14 to 15 billion dollars this year, making one of only a handful of major industrial countries whose trade will be in black.
今年,日本的出超预计将达到140至150亿美元左右,这将使它成为屈指可数的有贸易顺差的主要工业国家之一。
4. Conversion of partial into the whole
Ex. 8     The President wants a Chinese face or two to add to the fraternity.
总统希望请一、两位中国人出席,以增强四海一家的气氛。
Ex. 9     There were several big names at the party.
宴会上有几位知名人士。
5. Conversion of the whole into partial
Ex. 9     When he was accused of theft, he turned red.
当有人指控他行窃时,他的脸变得通红。
6. Translating colors
Ex. 10     The pallor of her face indicated clearly how she was feeling at the moment.
她苍白的脸色清楚地表明了她当时的情绪。
7. Translating onomatopoeia
Ex. 11     …and he insisted on a big Wow, meaning a thrill ride, here featuring lifelike dinosaurs.

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