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 商务英语翻译Chapter 2
1. Comprehension
A. Semantic system
- Conceptual meaning
- Structural meaning
- associated meaning

B. Context
Ex. 1     He didn't marry her because she was rich.

C. Background & special knowledge
Ex. 2    Finally, proper tax planning both from the host country standpoint and the U. S.
standpoint will improve your "keeping money" if, as you anticipate, the joint venture is profitable.
D. Logic
Ex. 3     The market for the (tea) company’s products consisted of young people, women between the ages of 18 and 49, and older people who wanted a warm drink that was caffeine-free.
E. “False friends”
Ex. 4     Wrong Right
a walking skeleton 行尸走肉 骨瘦如柴
to hold one's horse 悬崖勒马 忍耐、观望
to make the blood boil 热血沸腾 怒火中烧
white wine 白酒 白葡萄酒

2. Reproduction
A. Purpose & the target reader
B. Context
Ex. 5  If governments let oil prices rise, people cut down on marginal uses of oil, but
      continue to use it where it is most valuable.
C. Body vs. details
D. Translationese

3. Check-up & polishing
A. Understanding
B. Missing
C. Wrong wording
D. Awkward structures
E. Proof reading – figures, names, time, etc.
F. Format
G. Punctuating
H. Footnotes, etc.

Requirements for translator
A. Language proficiency
B. Background knowledge
C. Experience

A. Conversion
- Parts of speech, word order, etc.
- Structure
- Form and content
- Perspectives
- Voices, etc.

B. Compensation
- Amplification & extension
- Omission & merging
- Splitting
- Replacing
- Shifting

Ex. 6     The use of interpreters slows substantially the pace of negotiations.
Version 1. 译员的使用大大减慢谈判的速度。
Version 2. 使用译员会大大减慢谈判进度。

Ex. 7    We in Zambia would like to build a color-blind society where all can have equal opportunities.
Chapter 3 Conversion of Parts of Speech
1. Comparative study & further analysis:
English             Chinese
Noun                名词
Verb                动词
Adjective            形容词
Adverb                副词
Numeral                数词
Pronoun                代词
Preposition        介词(方位词)
Conjunction        连词
Interjection        叹词
1. Conversion of nouns
A. Derivation
Ex.1     The new situation requires the formation of a new strategy.
B. Collocation
Ex.2     I have the honour to inform you that your application has been accepted.
2. Conversion of prepositions
A. Scope and frequency
Ex.4    …and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
3. Conversion of verbs
A. Derivation
Ex.5     As long as the returns from new stores were higher than its
                building costs, McDonald’s profited in ways that none of its
                competitors could match.
B. Voice-pattern
Ex.6     The question of United States arms sales to Taiwan was not settled in the course of negotiations between the two countries on establishing diplomatic relations.
4. Conversion of adjectives
Ex. 7     The American people hailed the program for greater Sino-US trade.
Ex. 6     The car is due for a new name before American introduction.
5. Conversion of adverbs
Ex. 9     When the crops are in, they start autumn sowing.
Ex. 10     The paper said editorially that China has successfully survived a worldwide financial crisis.
6. Conversion of articles
Ex. 11     EDI is one way of doing business today -- it will be the way of doing business tomorrow.
7. Conversion of connectives
Ex. 12    Let them call themselves Taiwan and we will invite them.

Chapter 4 Restructuring

1. Choice of subject
Ex. 1    Fear of the bombers had cleared the bay.

2. Sentence reorganizing
      A. Word order
Ex. 2    From $6.1 billion in 1981, the U.S. deficit with Asia's four tigers last year reached $37 billion, or 22% of the total U.S. trade deficit.
美国与亚洲四小虎的贸易逆差在1981年为61亿美元,去年却高 达370亿美元,占美国全部贸易逆差的22%。
      B. Inverted order
 Ex. 3    Little did I then know the meaning of war and what it was in reality.
      C. Restructuring
 Ex. 4    The boy was watching the steam rising from the kettle when he conceived an idea.

3. Conversion of attributive clauses
A. Into adverbials of
- Reasons
Ex. 5    Their basic fear is of the slack up of protectionism, and above all, American                                                  
capital outflow which to them means job outflows.
- Condistions
Ex. 6    They amounted to near twenty thousand pounds, which to pay would have ruined me.
- Purposes
Ex. 7  Unfortunately, every country in the world has trade barriers which are designed to protect its economy against international market forces.
- Results
Ex. 8  There was something original, independent, and heroic about the plan that
       pleased all of them.
- Concession
Ex. 9  Moscow refused to interpret as a flat rejection the White House reaction to the Russian proposal, which President George Bush had termed inadequate.
B. Into appositives
Ex. 10  All the while, George Bush, who was ultimately to benefit from the try that failed, sat silently by, a nearly forgotten spectator.

4. Conversion of adverbials
A. of time into
- that of concession
Ex. 11   ... a joint venture that did not work out may be profitable for the partners when broken up if the right decisions were made on the purchase of real estate or the acquisition of the right equipment.
- that of condition
Ex. 12  When a representative exceeds his allotted time, the President shall call him to order without delay.
- others
Ex. 13  Most forecasters believe that unemployment will rise to about 9 percent before it eases next year.
B. of conditions into that of concession
Ex. 14  If he actually did commit the crime, he wouldn't be punished.

5. Conversion of comparatives
A. Conversion of the original degree
Ex. 15  When it comes to reporting earnings, the U.S. companies have about as much
       credibility these days as the judges of Olympic figure skating.
Ex. 16  Exporting countries, in general, are expanding cotton exports this season as
          much as their cotton supplies will permit.
B. Conversion of the comparative degree expressing
- Difference
Ex. 17  Many dealers face the future with more confidence than they have exhibited in the years past.
Ex. 18      The officials here said the present differences were due less to any ideological
reason than to nationalistic feelings.
- Identity
Ex. 19     I don't think that Russian policy is formed that way any more than our policy is formed.
- Preference
Ex. 20      In fact, you could say that McDonald’s is really more of a landlord than a
conventional fast-food chain.
- Emphasis
Ex. 21      Reagan was more than cordial to Ford as they met for 65 minutes.
- Emphamism
Ex. 22      The President had done no more than support "continuing study of the
6. Conversion of superlative degree expressing
- Emphasis
Ex. 23      It is a most important problem.
这是一个十分重要的问题。(比较:the most important)
Ex. 24      I should do it with the greatest pleasure.
7. Multiples in translation
A. Increase (base - 1)
N times as many (much) as,
N times more than,
increase N times/folds, increase by (to) N times,等等。
  Ex. 25      The attitude of the consumer toward your product may change if he feels ice
  cream is twice as expensive at home as it is somewhere else.
B. Decrease
reduce (decrease) N times as many (much) as,
N times fewer (less) than,
decrease N times, decrease by N times, N-fold reduction,等等
Ex. 26      The product cost decreased three times.
8. Conversion of appositives
Ex. 27      Simply by raising the price of oil, a good we import in large quantities, he can damage the U.S. economy.

 Chapter 5 Conversion of Voices

1. Frequency of passives in English vs. Chinese
2 Conversion of passive voice into active
A. with passive implication
Ex. 1     If understanding prevails, UNCTAD is in a position to replace confrontation with agreement; it cannot be put off.
Ex. 2     The French supervisor will ordinarily be found in the middle of his subordinates
where he can control them.
B. with emphatic structure
Ex. 3    Our International Club was founded a year ago to help foreign businessmen in this city meet together.
C. with non-subject structure
Ex. 4     Machinery for the just settlement of international differences must be founded.
It must be admitted that ...         (…)必须承认……
It may be safely said that ...         (…)可以有把握地说……
It is reported that ...                  据(…)报道……
It will be seen from this that ...     (…)由此可见……
D. with subjects
Ex. 5    Americans are cushioned against rising commodity prices by the strong dollar.
It was told that ...                 有人曾经说过……
It is sometimes asked that ...         人们有时会问……
It is well known that ...             众所周知……
It is claimed that ...                 有人宣称……
3 Retaining passives
A. typical passive
Ex. 6     Imagine that one or other continent is left out or forgotten, reduced to its poverty and its disorder, what will happen to the others?
A. with converted verbs
Ex. 7    Foreign concessions would be cancelled if they did not accord with the law.
4. Conversion of active into passive
Ex. 8     The paper said that foreign agents had infiltrated the then government and engineered the president's overthrow.
Ex. 9     His acceptance of bribes led to his arrest.

 Chapter 6
Conversion Between Content and Form

1. Conversion of abstract into concrete
A. addition of concrete words
Ex. 1     It called for creation of a defense corps to take charge of anti-subversion in peacetime.
Ex. 2     I committed myself to make up for past mistakes to fight corruption and injustices and to form a national government to carry out free election.
B. paraphrasing
Ex. 3     A conference of developing countries and richer industrialized states has convened in Washington, attempting to identify priorities for improving life among poor areas of the world.
Ex. 4     The hard truth is that we are not owed a say in the world today on what we have been.
2. Conversion of concrete into abstract
A. replacing
Ex. 5     Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.
B. paraphrasing
Ex. 6     Among these gift horses, it is the decline in interest rates that has done the most to foster the FORTUNE 500's bottom-line bonanza.
Ex. 7     Japan’s exports are expected to exceed her imports by about 14 to 15 billion dollars this year, making one of only a handful of major industrial countries whose trade will be in black.
4. Conversion of partial into the whole
Ex. 8     The President wants a Chinese face or two to add to the fraternity.
Ex. 9     There were several big names at the party.
5. Conversion of the whole into partial
Ex. 9     When he was accused of theft, he turned red.
6. Translating colors
Ex. 10     The pallor of her face indicated clearly how she was feeling at the moment.
7. Translating onomatopoeia
Ex. 11     …and he insisted on a big Wow, meaning a thrill ride, here featuring lifelike dinosaurs.

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