对外经济贸易大学英语学院考研专业课辅导资料-经济术语解释

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对外经贸大学英语学院考研专业课辅导资料-经济术语解释

GDP 国内生产总值: The total market value of all goods and services produced within the political boundaries of an economy during a given period of time, usually a year.
国内生产总值是指在一定时期内(一个季度或一年),一个国家或地区的经济中所生产出的全部最终产品和劳务的价值


GNP国民生产总值: The total market value of all the goods and services produced by a nation during a given time, usually a year.
国民生产总值(GNP)是最重要的宏观经济指标,它是指一个国家地区的国民经济在一定时期(一般1年)内以货币表现的全部最终产品(含货物和服务)价值的总和。

Economic growth 经济增长: The process in which a steady long-time growth in real GDP and an improvement in living standards are achieved.
经济增长通常是指在一个较长的时间跨度上,一个国家人均产出(或人均收入)水平的持续增加

Recession衰退: A period of declining real incomes and rising unemployment. 指经济出现停滞或负增长的时期

Depression: 萧条期 A severe recession. A period of drastic decline in a national or international economy, characterized by decreasing business activity, falling prices, and unemployment.
 长时期的高失业率、低产出、低投资、企业信心降低、价格下跌和企业普遍破产。今天,衰退的精确定义是实际国民生产总值至少连续两个季度下降

Value added增值: It can be defines as the gross value of an industry’s output minus the value of its inputs from other industries.
实现等价的财务节约或收益
Okun’s Law奥肯法则: In economics, Okun's Law, named after economist Arthur Okun, describes a relationship between the change in the rate of unemployment and the difference between actual and potential real GDP. It can be stated as saying that for every one percentage point by which the actual unemployment rate exceeds the "natural" rate of unemployment, there is a 2 to 4 percent "GDP Gap. GDP变化和失业率变化之间存在的一种相当稳定的关系。这一定律认为,GDP每增加2%,失业率大约下降一个百分点,这种关系并不是十分严格,它只是说明了,产量增加1%时,就业人数上升达不到1%。原因可能是产量的增加是通过工人加班加点来达到的,而非由于增加就业人数;也可能是社会增加了第二职业人数,从而使就业量小于产量增加的百分比。

Indexing指数化,价格相关指数化: It is a mechanism by which wages, prices, and contracts are partially or wholly compensated for changes in the general price level.
Phillip’s curve: A curve that shows that short-run trade-off between inflation and unemployment.
Potential GDP潜在GDP: A situation in which all the economy’s labour, capital, land and entrepreneurial ability are fully employed.
一个国家在正常强度下,充分利用其生产资源能够生产出的GDP。所以也叫“充分就业的GDP”,反映一个经济的潜力
Equilibrium (以市场供求均衡为特点的)经济稳定状态: A situation in which the price has reached the level where quantity supplied equals quantity demanded.
Stagflation通货滞胀: A situation in which an economy is experiencing both falling output and rising prices.产量下降,价格上升。指物价上升,但经济停滞不前

MPC 边际消费倾向marginal propensity to consume: It is the extra amount that people consume when they receive an extra dollar of disposable income.人们获得额外收益时,可以用来消费的金额。每增减1元国民收入所引起的消费变化
MPS 边际储蓄倾向MPS ( marginal propensity to save): It can be defined as the fraction of an extra dollar of disposable income that goes to extra saving. 每增减1元国民收入所带来的储蓄的变化

Theory of liquidity preference偏好理论;流动性偏好理论: Keynes’s theory that the interests rate adjusts to bring money supply and money demand into balance.
Supply shock供给冲击: An event that directly alters firm’s costs and prices, shifting the economy’s aggregate-supply curve and thus the Phillip’s curve.
供给冲击是指可能引起生产能力和成本变化的事件。例如,石油进口价格的变化;对大量农作物产生破坏的霜冻、洪水和干旱等自然灾害;经济体中劳动力教育水平的变化,或者劳动力愿意参加工作的工资率的变化。

Crowding effect拥挤效应: The offset in aggregate demand that results when expansionary fiscal policy raises the interest rate and thereby reduces investment spending.

Multiplier effect乘数效应: The additional shifts in aggregate demand that results when
expansionary fiscal policy increases income and thereby increases consumer spending.
Fraction-reserve banking:(银行部分准备金制度) A banking system in which banks holds only a fraction of deposits as reserve.
Money multiplier货币乘数: The amount of money that banking system generates with each dollar of reserve.
Open-market operations公开市场业务: The purchase and sale of US government bonds by the Fed.
公开市场业务是指中央银行通过买进或卖出有价证券,吞吐基础货币,调节货币供应量的活动。与一般金融机构所从事的证券买卖不同,中央银行买卖证券的目的不是为了盈利,而是为了调节货币供应量。根据经济形势的发展,当中央银行认为需要收缩银根时,便卖出证券,相应地收回一部分基础货币,减少金融机构可用资金的数量;相反,当中央银行认为需要放松银根时,便买进证券,扩大基础货币供应,直接增加金融机构可用资金的数量。

Reserve requirements法定准备金: Regulation on the minimum amount of reserves that banks must hold against deposits. 法定存款准备金是指商业银行按照法律规定必须存在中央银行里的自身所吸收存款的一个最低限度的准备金。法定存款准备金的比例通常是由中央银行决定的,被称为法定存款准备金率。超额存款准备金是金融机构存放在中央银行、超出法定存款准备金的部分,主要用于支付清算、头寸调拨或作为资产运用的备用资金。

The Laffer curve拉菲尔曲线: A curve which supposes that for a given economy there is an optimal income tax level to maximize tax revenues. It shows that tax revenue rises first with the size of the tax; but then. As the tax gets larger, the market shrinks so much that tax revenue starts to fall.
Trade deficit贸易赤字: The amount by which a nation’s imports of goods exceeds its exports of goods.
贸易逆差也叫“贸易赤字”,是指一个国家的进口总额大于出口, 反映的是国与国之间的商品贸易状况,也是判断宏观经济运行状况的重要指标。
Trade surplus贸易顺差: The amount by which a nation’s exports of goods exceeds it imports of goods.
所谓贸易顺差是指在特定年度一国出口贸易总额大于进口贸易总额,又称 “ 出超 ”.表示该国当年对外贸易处于有利地位。贸易顺差的大小在很大程度上反映一国在特定年份对外贸易活动状况。通常情况下,一国不宜长期大量出现对外贸易顺差,因为此举很容易引起与有关贸易伙伴国的摩擦。例如,美、日两国双边关系市场发生波动,主要原因之一就是日方长期处于巨额顺差状况。与此同时,大量外汇盈余通常会致使一国市场上本币投放量随之增长,因而很可能引起通货膨胀压力,不利于国民经济持续、健康发展。

Balance of trade贸易差额The value of a country’s exports minus the value of its imports.
贸易差额(Balance of Trade)是一国在一定时期内(如一年、半年、一季、一月)出口总值与进口总值之间的差额。当出口总值与进口总值相等时,称为“贸易平衡”。当出口总值大于进口总值时,出现贸易盈余,称“贸易顺差”或“出超”。当进口总值大于出口总值时,出现贸易赤字,称“贸易逆差”或“入超”。通常,贸易顺差以正数表示,贸易逆差以负数表示。一国的进出口贸易收支是其国际收支中经常项目的重要组成部分,是影响一个国家国际收支的重要因素。:

Absolute Advantage绝对利益: The ability of a country to supply a particular product or class of goods at lower costs than competing nations.
英国古典经济学家亚当•斯密提出,是指在某种商品的生产上,一个经济在劳动生产率上占有绝对优势,或其生产所耗费的劳动成本绝对低于另一个经济。若各个经济都从事自己占绝对优势的产品的生产,继而进行交换,那么双方都可以通过交换得到绝对的利益,从而整个世界也可以获得分工的好处
Comparative advantage相对优势: The ability to produce a good at lower cost, relative to other goods, compared to another country.
相对优势是指某种革新与其所替代的旧的技术相比,其先进的程度。而相对优势度常常用经济收益,低初始成本,适应性的增强。一段时间内储蓄的增加,社会声望。回报的快速性等来表示。一项革新较前一方案的相对优势度越高,改革新方案的使用率越高。

Demand or reactive lag: It is the time it takes for consumers to respond to the emergence of new, low cost of the product.
International Product life cycle国际产品生命周期: Certain kinds of products go through a continuum, or cycle, that consists of roughly four stages-introduction, growth, maturity, and decline- and that the location of production will shift from one country to another depending on the stage in the products life cycle.
产品生命周期,简称PLC(product life cycle),是指产品的市场寿命,即一种新产品从开始进入市场到被市场淘汰的整个过程,分为介绍期(导入期)、增长期(成长期)、成熟期、衰退期(衰亡期)四个阶段。
Mercantilism :

Non-tariff barriers非关税壁垒: All barriers other then protective tariff that nations erect to impede international trade, including import quotas, licensing requirements and so on.
非关税壁垒,又称非关税贸易壁垒,就是指一国政府采取除关税以外的各种办法,来对本国的对外贸易活动进行调节、管理和控制的一切政策与手段的总和,其目的就是试图在一定程度上限制进口,以保护国内市场和国内产业的发展。非关税壁垒大致可以分为直接的和间接的两大类:前者是由海关直接对进口商品的数量、品种加以限制,其主要措施有:进口限额制、进口许可证制、“自动”出口限额制、出口许可证制等。
MES(minimum efficient scale): 最低效率规模The lowest level of output at which a form can minimize lone-run average total cost.
Ad valorem tariff:
•    Import quotas: 进口配额
 Government put a physical limit on the volume of a particular production which may be imported during a particular period of time.
进口配额(Import Quotas System)又称进口限额。它是一国政府在一定时间内,对于某些商品一定时期内的进口数量或金额,事先加以规定的限额。超过规定限额的不准进口。

Voluntary export restraints: 自愿出口限制restraints on exports that are self-imposed by an exporting country, although often in response to a threat that if such constraints are not imposed, the importing country will impose import quotes

Anti-dumping duties: 反倾销税special import duties imposed when a firm, following an enquiry, is assessed as having sold a product in the importing market at a price below the one it charges in the home market.
反倾销税(Anti-dumping Duties),就是对倾销商品所征收的进口附加税。当进口国因外国倾销某种产品,国内产业受到损害时,征收相当于出口国国内市场价格与倾销价格之间差额的进口税。
Countervailing duties: 反补贴税Additional duties imposed by the importing country to offset government subsidies in the exporting country, when the subsidized imports cause material injury to domestic industry in the importing country
反补贴税,是指对进口商品使用的一种超过正常关税的特殊关税,目的在于为了抵消国外竞争者得到奖励和补助产生的影响,从而保护进口国的制造商。

Externalities: 外部效应Spillover benefits or costs arising from an economic activity that are not taken into account by producers, resulting in levels of production that are inappropriate from the standpoint of the economy as a whole.
Fundamental disequilibrium国际收支基本不平衡: A balance of payments surplus or deficits too great and/or enduring to be financed. It is easy to detect with hindsight, but difficult to detect at the onset
X-inefficiency: The failure to produce any specific output at the lowest average (and total) cost possible.

Capital stock: 股票总额The total available capital in a nation.
Free rider抢帽子交易者: The inability of potential providers of an economically desirable but in divisive good or service to obtain payment from those who benefit because the exclusive principle is not applicable.

Primary produc初级产品t: A good that has not been processed and is therefore in its natural state, specifically products of agriculture, forestry, fishing, and mining.
初级产品(Primary Commodity),又称原始产品,指未经加工或因销售习惯而略作加工的产品,人们通过劳动,直接从自然界获得的、尚待进一步加工或已经简单加工的产品。
Intermediate goods中间产品;半成品: Products that are purchased for resale or further processing or manufacture.
Local content requirement当地含量要求: A requirement that some specific fraction of a good be produced domestically.
Transfer of technology技术转移: the movement of a technology from its culture of origin to some different culture.

Adverse selection problem逆向选择问题: A problem is arising when information known to one party to a contract is not to known to the other party, causing the latter to incur major costs. E.g.: Individuals who have the poorest health are most likely to buy health insurance.

Balance of payments国际收支平衡表: A summary of all the transactions that took place between the individuals, firms, and governments units of one nation and those of all other nation during a year.
国际收支平衡表是反映一定时期一国同外国的全部经济往来的收支流量表。国际收支平衡表是对一个国家与其他国家进行经济技术交流过程中所发生的贸易、非贸易、资本往来以及储备资产的实际动态所作的系统记录,是国际收支核算的重要工具。通过国际收支平衡表,可综合反映一国的国际收支平衡状况、收支结构及储备资产的增减变动情况,为制定对外经济政策,分析影响国际收支平衡的基本经济因素,采取相应的调控措施提供依据,并为其他核算表中有关国外部分提供基础性资料。
Current account活期存款帐户: The section in a nation’s international balance of payments that records its exports and imports of goods and services, its net investment income, and its net transfer.
Capital account: 资本项目
 The section in a nation’s international balance of payments that records the capital inflows and the capital outflows of that nation.
资本项目 (Capital and Financial Account),又称资本和金融帐户,指资本的输出与输入。反映的是本国和外国之间以货币表示的债权债务在国际间的变动,换言之,就是一国为了某种经济目的在国际经济交易中发生的资本跨国界的收支项目。资本项目包括居民和非居民间资产或金融资产的转移
Double entry accounting复式簿记会计: A method of bookkeeping in which every entry is balanced by another entry. Correct double-entry accounting always provides a balanced set of books; that is, the total value of your asset accounts minus the total of your liability accounts will equal the total of your equity accounts.

Unilateral transfer单方面转移收支: Payment made by the government or private sector of one country to another as a gift or aid, not as payment for any good or service nor as an obligation.

Private transfer payments: It refers to gifts made by individual’s and non-government institutions to foreign.
单方面转移收支 Unilateral Transfer:也称无偿转移收支,指国家之间单方面的,无需偿还的外汇收支,包括私人单方面转移收支和政府单方面转移收支两部分。私人单方面转移收支包括侨汇、年金、个人赠与等;政府单方面转移收支包括政府间的经济援助、军事援助、战争赔款、政府间的赠与等。单方面转移收支是国际收支的组成部分,包括在国际收支平衡表中的经常项目(Current Account)中。
Government transfers政府的移转性支出refer to gifts or grants made by one government to foreign residents or foreign governments.
Special Drawing Rights:

Hot money短期流动资金: Money that moves rapidly across country borders in quick profits on debt or equities investments. (转移到国外以获取高利的)短期流动资金,流资
Par value: Face value. 票面价值The central value of a pegged exchange rate, around which the actual rate is permitted to fluctuate within set bounds.  票面价值:指公司最初所定股票票面值。
Crawling pegs: 有限浮动汇率(制);The currency is adjusted periodically in small amounts at a fixed rate or in response to changes in selective quantitative indicators, such as past inflation differentials vis-à-vis major trading partners, differentials between the inflation target and expected inflation in major trading partners, and so forth.
Key currency主要货币: It is one that is traded on world money markets, has demonstrated stable values over time and has been widely accepted as a means of international settlement.
Hedging: 对冲  金融学上,对冲指特意减低另一项投资的风险的投资。它是一种在减低商业风险的同时仍然能在投资中获利的手法。

Basket of currencies: 一篮子货币A group of currencies used to establish a value for some other currency. 一篮子货币(Basket of currencies)指作为设定汇率参考的一个外币组合,某一外币在组合中所占的比重通常以该外币在本国国际贸易中的重要性为基准。例如,如果某国的进出口有40%以美元计价,美元在该国的一篮子货币中所占的权重可能就是40%。
Net capital inflows: 净资本流入It means the purchase of foreign assets by domestic residents is less than the purchase of domestic assets by foreign residents.  净资本是衡量证券公司资本充足和资产流动性状况的一个综合性监管指标,是证券公司净资产中流动性较高、可快速变现的部分,它表明证券公司可随时用于变现以满足支付需要的资金数额。通过对证券公司净资本情况的监控,监管部门可以准确及时地掌握证券公司的偿付能力,防范流动性风险。

Net capital outflows: 资本净流出。It means the purchase of foreign assets by domestic residents is more than the purchase of domestic assets by foreign residents.
International monetary system: Or international monetary order or regime refers to the rules, customs, instruments, facilities, and organizations for effecting international payments.
Pegged exchange rate :
Specie flow mechanism: 黄金流动机制Under the gold standard, the mechanism by which international payments would adjust. A country with high inflation would export less, import more, and thus lose specie, i.e., gold. With the money supply fixed to the quantity of gold, the resulting monetary contraction would reduce prices. Due to David Hume. 
Gold Standard: 金本位制A monetary system in which both the value of a unit of the currency and the quantity of it in circulation are specified in terms of gold. If two currencies are both on the gold standard, then the exchange rate between them is approximately determined by their two prices in terms of gold.

Beggar thy neighbor: 以邻为壑效应简单来说就是一国采取的政策行动尽管对本国经济有利,却损害了别国的经济。具体来说,即汇率代表货币的相对价值,因此,任何一个汇率水平,任何一个国家的汇率制度选择,任何一个开放经济体为实现内外均衡而实施的宏观经济政策,都不可避免地具有外部性。其中,负的外部性即以邻为壑效应。
Cartel: 卡特尔,企业联合A group of firms that seeks to raise the price of a good by restricting its supply. The term is usually used for international groups, especially involving state-owned firms and/or governments. 卡特尔 (cartel) 由一系列生产类似产品的独立企业所构成的组织,集体行动的生产者,目的是提高该类产品价格和控制其产量。根据美国反托拉斯法,卡特尔属于非法。
Stand-by-arrangements:(备用信贷协议) It refers to advance permission for future borrowing by the nation in IMF.
Seignior age:(铸币利差)It is the profit accruing to a nation form issuing the currency or which its currency is used as an international currency.
Maastricht Treaty:

Globalization全球化: The increasing worldwide integration of markets for goods, services, and capital that attracted special attention in the late 1990s.
全球化是指全球联系不断增强,人类生活在全球规模的基础上发展及全球意识的崛起。国与国之间在政治、经济贸易上互相依存。全球化亦可以解释为世界的压缩和视全球为一个整体。全球化一词近年来变得流行。政府决策者、政党领袖、工商界、学术界、工会领袖以至大众传媒无不谈及全球化的影响及其如何改变我们的生活。许多人视过去二十年国际贸易及投资增长为全球化。全球化正在推倒各国疆界,使全球经济一体化。有些人把全球化喻为“地球村”。对于“全球化”的观感是好是坏,目前仍是见仁见智。

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