对外经济贸易大学英语学院761基础英语861综合英语考研辅导-词汇篇

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对外经贸大学英语学院761基础英语861综合英语考研辅导-词汇篇

一.语法综述       
倒装
比较级
虚拟语气+过去完成时
非谓语动词
定语从句
容易忽略的小细节用法(名词所有格,人称代词的一致性, 主谓一致,部分否定,省略,it等用法)

真题解析:
Scarely had they settled themselves in their seats in the theatre_______ the curtain went up.  2009
A. then     B when          C than            D. before

_________,the white mountain goat is an extremely sure-footed animao that escapes from its predators by living in the most rugged, rocky landscape.
A Having been rarely seen     B Rarely to be seen
C Rarely seen               D Being rarely seen
考察非谓语动词
一个原则:动词不定时与逻辑主语的关系,然后考虑时态

__________native to Europe, the daisy has now spread throughout most of North America.
A. Although              B   If it were
C In spite of              D   That it is
考察省略
省略
1.形容词性(定语)从句关系代词的省略
(1)that, which 引导定语从句并在从句中做宾语时,可以省略。
(2)that引导定语从句并且从句是there be句型时,可以省略。如:
No one would have the time to read or listen to an account of everything there is going on in the world.

2.副词性(状语)从句的省略
(1)虚拟语气句省略条件连词if,从句采用倒装结构。如:
Had it not been for the timely investment from the general public, our company would not be so thriving as it is.
(2)由although, as if, if, no matter + wh-, once, though, unless, until, when, where, whether, while等连词引导的表示时间、地点、条件、让步、方式的状语从句,可省略主语和助动词be,保留ing分词、ed分词或表语。这样省略的条件是:●从句中被省略的主语必须与主句的主语一致;●谓语动词必须含有be;●从句必须与主语和b
e动词一起省去,不可只省略主语而保留整个谓语,也不可只保留主语而省略谓语。如:
Though raised in San Francisco, Dave Mitchell had always preferred to record the plain facts of small-town life.
Although born in Chicago, the author is most famous for his stories about New York City.
One should never lose one’s heart when confronted with temporary difficulties.

3.比较从句中主语的省略
在这种省略结构中,也可以把than或as当成关系代词。因为主语省略了,所以尤其要注意识别哪个词是省略了的主语,进而选择谓语的数、时态和语态。
These proposals sought to place greater restrictions on the use and copying of digital information than exist in traditional media.
There ought to be less anxiety over the perceived risk of getting cancer than exists in the public mind today.
The project requires more labor than has been put in because it is extremely difficult.

4.that用于引导宾语从句时,可以省略
Of the thousands of varieties of bird species in North America, ___________bright red plumage, like the cardinal, are most often designated as state bird.
A. those that have           B who have
C  which have             D to have their

_________mechanical device has ever been invented that can satisfactorily replace teasel flower heads for raising the nap on cloth.
A   No           B  Not the
C   Never has a    D  There is no

二.词汇
1.熟词生意

Abandon 
放松 沉溺
She abandoned herself to the serene landscape.

Abide
容忍, 经受住
The one thing he can’t abide is lying.

Abroad
广为流传,传开
There was news abroad that a change was coming.

Absolute
基本的
You should have known the absolute knowledge about this.

Absorb
承受,忍受
The government is not strong enough to absorb vigorous criticism by its citizens.

Acute
(疾病)急性的,严重的,激烈的
An acute disease     acute shortage of food

Administer
给予, 投药
Administer relief 发放救济品

Affect
感动,假装
She affected a calmness she didn’t feel.

Agitate
搅拌
Please agitate the liquid before you drink it.

Audit
(A.E) 旁听(大学课程)
She audited classes at Peking University.

B
Bearing
关系(on), 方面(常pl), 方位,方向感
What he said had not much bearing on the problem.
They lost their bearings in the dark.

Benign
(肿瘤等)良性的, 气候温和的,宜人的
A benign tumor can usually be cured.


Brush
小冲突, 稍有不快的场合(with)
Brush with the law


C
Casual
临时的,非正式的
A casual laborer is one who has no steady job.

Cheat
消磨(时间), 消除(厌烦等),逃脱
The swimmers cheated death in spite of the storm.

Climate
倾向, 思潮, 风气, 环境气氛
The current climate of opinion

Colume
专栏
Advertisement colume

Comb
彻底搜查, 搜罗
Comb your mind for as much as you know about your ancestor.
Compose
使(自己,思想等)准备好,使平静
Compose oneself to write

Concern
公司, 企业
An insurance concern

Confidence
(向人透露的)秘密,机密
The old friends exchange confidence.

Curb
路边
She was standing on the curb waiting for her husband.

Cardinal      ---------cordial
大红的,鲜红的
A cardinal sweater

Contract
缩小,缩紧
A contracted mind

Cue
榜样
Follow sb’s cue


D
Deposit
沉淀 n
There’s some deposit at the bottom of this bottle of wine.

Diffuse
(文章等)冗长的,漫长无际的
His talk was so defuse that I missed his point.

Draw out
使畅所欲言,使充分发挥
The new responsibilities drew out his latent talents.

E
Ear

The maize and millet were just putting forth ears.

Edge
优势 n , 挤兑 v
Maintain a edge
She was edged out of the company by the new director.

Expand
变得和蔼愉快, 感到心旷神怡
His subtle flattery made her expand and glow.

Extension
电话分机
What’s the extension number of your phone?

F
Fare
进展(成功或不成功的)
Our economy is faring far better than a few years.

Foul
犯规 n,ad, adv
The team’s record of fouls was among the worst.


G
Game
猎物
They returned to the camp, loaded with game.

Gather
认为,猜想, 推断,理解
From what I can gather, there’s been some kind of problem.

Grace
情理, 宽限,恩典
There are 3 days of grace allowed after the day for payment.

Hail
呼换, 招呼;赞扬,称颂
The conference was hailed as a great success.

Harbor
庇护,藏匿 v
Harboring criminals is an offence in law.

Heap
大加颂扬(或批评)
Honors and academic degrees were heaped upon him

I
Identical
同卵双生的
Identical twins

Impart -----depart
把(某性质)赋予,将….给予
The spice imparts an Eastern flavour to the dish.

Import
要旨,含义
Grasp the import of sb’s remarks


J
Jungle
混乱复杂的事
The paper is a jungle of ads.


L
Lean
瘦的,无脂肪的
Lean meat is healthier for you than fatty meat

Let
把…承包出去, 租借
Let the construction job to a new firm

Local
慢车
Local train

Lot
命运 n 抽签v
The workers of Paris were bitten by discontented with their lot.

M
Medical
内科的
The hospital has a medical ward and a surgical ward.

N
Need
贫穷
He is in great need.

0-    Z
Particular
详情,细目 n
Please send me particulars of the examination in English.

Platform
政纲, 党纲
The platform of the new political party demands lower taxes.

Pocket
操纵,隐藏,忍受 v
Attempt to pocket legislature
Pocket one’s pride

Polish
完美,优雅 n, v
Four years of college gave her considerable polish.

Pupil
瞳孔

Refreshment
点心,饮料(常用复数)

Relieve
接替,替下
The man I was relieving in the observation post was impatient when I arrived.

Satisfy
说服 v
He satisfied me that he should do the work well.

Spirit
偷偷带走,让人不可思议的弄走
After the concert, the band was spirited away before their fans could get near them.

Tender
提出,提供,投标 v
Tender resignation
Tender for the contract to build a new hotel

Transaction
(学会的)会报,学报,集刊
The transactions of our university focus on economic management.

Uniform
不变的,均匀的
Lawns of a uniform green
   
真题解析
1.    I think she hurt my feeling ____________rather than by accident as she clasimed.
A virtually   B deliberately 
C literally   D appropriately

2.    The_______market is a little depressed now.
A consuming  B consumption
C consumptive  D consumer

3.    A good reputation is a(n)________asset for a company.
      A tangible        B intangible
    C visible        D  invisible

4.    We agreed to pay for the car in five_________
    A installment        B down-payments
    C payments            D times

5.    There is no point in setting objectives if you don’t___________them to your staff.
    A pass        B perform
    C communicate   D allocate

6.    Although most dreams apparently happen_________, dream activity may be provoked by external influnences.
    A spontaneously        B simultaneously
    C homogeneously        D instantaneously

7.    As a___________doctor, he can perform, sing, dance and play several kinds of musical instruments.
    A. flexible        B. versatile
    C sophisticated        D productive

8. There are not many teachers who are strong__________of traditional methods in English teaching.
        A sponsors        B contributors
        C advocates         D performers

9.  We managed to reach the top of the mountain, and half an hour later we began to _______
        A ascend        B descend
        C decline      D plunge

10. Competition, they believe,___________the national character than corrupt it.
        A enforces        B confirms
        C intensifies        D strengthens

11. The accident_____________him of his sight and the use of his legs.
        A excluded        B disbled
        C deprived     D gripped

12. The people living in these apartments have free___________to that swimming pool.
          A access        B excess
        C excursion        D recreation

13.    Even though he has guilty, the ______ judge did not send him to prison.
    A  merciful            B  impartial
    C  conscientious        C  conspicuous

14.    They had fierce ______ as to whether their company should restore the trade relationship which was broken year ago.
A  debate            B  clash
C  disagreement        D  context

15. The politician says he will ______ the welfare of the people.
    A  prey on            B  take on
    C  get at                D  see to

16.    He was ______ to steal the money when he saw it lying on the table.
    A  dragged            B  tempted
    C  elicited            D  attracted

17. Of the thousands of known volcanoes in the world, the ______ majority are inactive.
    A  tremendous        B  demanding
    C    intensive            D    overwhelming

18. The poetry of Ezra Pound is sometimes difficult to understand because it contains so many ______ references.
    A    obscure            B    acute
    C    notable            D    objective

19. The morning news says a school bus ______ with a train at the junction and a group of policemen were sent there immediately.
    A    bumped            B    collided
    C    crashed            D    struck









商务英语词汇
GDP 国内生产总值: The total market value of all goods and services produced within the political boundaries of an economy during a given period of time, usually a year.

GNP国民生产总值: The total market value of all the goods and services produced by a nation during a given time, usually a year.

Economic growth 经济增长: The process in which a steady long-time growth in real GDP and an improvement in living standards are achieved.

Recession衰退: A period of declining real incomes and rising unemployment.

Depression: 萧条期 A severe recession. A period of drastic decline in a national or international economy, characterized by decreasing business activity, falling prices, and unemployment.

Value added增值: It can be defines as the gross value of an industry’s output minus the value of its inputs from other industries.

Okun’s Law奥肯法则: In economics, Okun's Law, named after economist Arthur Okun, describes a relationship between the change in the rate of unemployment and the difference between actual and potential real GDP. It can be stated as saying that for every one percentage point by which the actual unemployment rate exceeds the "natural" rate of unemployment, there is a 2 to 4 percent "GDP Gap.
 
Indexing指数化,价格相关指数化: It is a mechanism by which wages, prices, and contracts are partially or wholly compensated for changes in the general price level.

Potential GDP潜在GDP: A situation in which all the economy’s labour, capital, land and entrepreneurial ability are fully employed.

Equilibrium (以市场供求均衡为特点的)经济稳定状态: A situation in which the price has reached the level where quantity supplied equals quantity demanded.

Stagflation通货滞胀: A situation in which an economy is experiencing both falling output and rising prices.产量下降,价格上升。指物价上升,但经济停滞不前

MPC 边际消费倾向marginal propensity to consume: It is the extra amount that people consume when they receive an extra dollar of disposable income.

MPS 边际储蓄倾向MPS ( marginal propensity to save): It can be defined as the fraction of an extra dollar of disposable income that goes to extra saving.

Theory of liquidity preference偏好理论;流动性偏好理论: Keynes’s theory that the interests rate adjusts to bring money supply and money demand into balance.

Supply shock供给冲击: An event that directly alters firm’s costs and prices, shifting the economy’s aggregate-supply curve and thus the Phillip’s curve.

Crowding effect拥挤效应: The offset in aggregate demand that results when expansionary fiscal policy raises the interest rate and thereby reduces investment spending.

Fraction-reserve banking:(银行部分准备金制度) A banking system in which banks holds only a fraction of deposits as reserve.

Money multiplier货币乘数: The amount of money that banking system generates with each dollar of reserve.

Open-market operations公开市场业务: The purchase and sale of US government bonds by the Fed.

Reserve requirements法定准备金: Regulation on the minimum amount of reserves that banks must hold against deposits.

The Laffer curve拉菲尔曲线: A curve which supposes that for a given economy there is an optimal income tax level to maximize tax revenues. It shows that tax revenue rises first with the size of the tax; but then. As the tax gets larger, the market shrinks so much that tax revenue starts to fall.

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