对外经济贸易大学英语学院考研辅导班-作文资料

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对外经贸大学英语学院考研辅导资料
                     作文
作文
1.    类似于专八题型的作文
2.    各种商务英语写作,主要包括report, memo, business letter
3.    各种表格的描述,表达,总结,概括


Business Letter

The Salutation 
The greeting of every business letter is the salutation

•    Place the salutation three typing spaces below the last line of the inside address and type it flush with the left margin.
•    The salutation must agree with the inside address.
•    When writing to individuals, always use their names if you know them .
•    Use "Dear sirs" or "Gentlemen" or "Ladies and Gentlemen" when two or more persons and all personal companies are addressed .
•    Use "Dear Madam" or "Dear Mesdames" to address a woman or a lady.
•    Never use "Madam" with a woman's name;
•    And "Mr.", "Ms.", "Mrs." or "Miss" must always be followed by a name.
•    Avoid using "Sirs" alone and "Gentlemen" in singular form.
•    Never write "Dear Miss" or "Dear Mrs." .
The Body of the Letter
 The body of the letter is the most important part of any business letter and contains the essential information
 
The body of the letter customarily consists of three paragraphs:
   -A. The first paragraph acts as an introduction or an acknowledgement of the previous correspondence if any.
  -B. The middle usually discusses matters or gives information.
  -C. The last paragraph expresses a hope or refers to the future action either by the writer or the reader 
The complimentary close
Best wishes,
Regards,
All best wishes,
Cordially,

Principles:  7Cs
Completeness
Conciseness
Consideration
Correctness
Clarity
Courtesy
Concreteness

Check for the 5W2H and any other essentials.
5W2H: Who, What, Where, When, Why, How, How much
For some letters---especially those that bring bad news,
answering the question “why” is of vital importance.
Eg:
Not This       But This
Please don’t hesitate to write to us       Please write us
due to the fact that    because
during the year of 2003    during 2003

in the city of London    London

for the reason that since    because

in the event that    if

from the point of view of
    as
for a price of $200,000    for $200,000

 

2) Avoid wordy statements and unnecessary repetition
3) Remove all the irrelevant facts in your message.
Major causes of irrelevancy mainly includes:
Not coming to the point.
Including information obvious to the reader.
Using big words to make an impression.
Being excessive polite.
Making too many unnecessary explanation
Not revising the first draft of a long, complicated message
eg. We would like to know whether you would allow us to extend the time of shipment for twenty
days, and if you would be so kind as to allow us to do so, kindly give us your reply by cable without
delay.
(better)Please reply by cable immediately if you will allow us to delay the shipment untiL April 21.

Use “you”attitude instead of “We” attitude
eg. (we attitude) We are happy to have your order for Gentlemen shirts, which we are sending today by CAAC Flight No. 345.
(you attitude) Your selection of Gentlemen shirts should reach you by Saturday, as they were
shipped today by CAAC Flight No. 345.

2) Some notable exceptions where you attitude is not suitable.
􀂃 When the reader has made a mistake.
Eg. (poor) You failed to enclose your pamphlet in the envelope.
(better) The envelope we received did not have your pamphlet in it.

Concreteness----being specific, definite, and vivid rather than vague and general
A.    Use specific facts and figures
B. Use verbs of action
Put action in verbs instead of nouns or infinitives.
They have made their first installment payment for the goods.
They have paid their first installment for the goods
The contract has stiptlation that…..
The contract stipulates that

Clarity
1). Avoid using words or structures that cause ambiguity
2) Be careful of the position of the attributives
eg.1 We shall be able to supply 10 cases of the item only.
We shall be able to supply only 10 cases of the item.
Eg.2 The goods we received contrary to our instructions are packed in wooden cases without iron
hoops.
The goods we received are packed in wooden cases without iron hoops contrary to our instructions .

3) Be attentive to the position of nouns and prons.
Eg. We are willing to leave this matter to the company the details of which are unknown to us.
We are willing to leave the company this matter, the details of which are unknown to us

Courtesy
Courtesy---to give the receiver a feeling of importance and satisfaction
1). Answer your mail immediately
2). Be sincere and naturally tactful, thoughtful and appreciative.
3). Avoid using expressions that may irritate your reader

Correctness
Correctness means the writer should:
----Choose the correct level of language
----Have a good command of both Chinese and English
----Use only accurate facts, figures and words
Formal:              Informal:
anticipate             expect
ascertain              find out
deem                 think (believe)
terminate              end

注意标点的用法


STYLE
1. Full block style
(letterhead)
April 21, 20_ _
Mr. Paul A. Smith, President
Smith &Sons, Inc.
3107 Western Avenue
New London, Connecticut 06320
Dear Mr. Smith:
Subject: Invoice 2011
Sincerely,
Calvin C. Dewitte

2. Modified block style
(letterhead)
April 21, 20_ _
Mr. Paul A. Smith, President
Smith &Sons, Inc.
3107 Western Avenue
New London, Connecticut 06320
Dear Mr. Smith:
Subject: Invoice 2011
Sincerely,

3. Modified block, Indented Style /Conventional Indented style
(letterhead)
April 21, 20_ _
Mr. Paul A. Smith, President
Smith &Sons, Inc.
3107 Western Avenue
New London, Connecticut 06320
Dear Mr. Smith:
Subject: Invoice 2011
Sincerely,
Calvin C. Dewitte


备忘录
一、内容
“备忘录”是商业机构和工商企业用来联系工作、交流信息、处理一般公务时一种简便函件,是公司之间或内部用来传递信息的一种文本形式,在国际商务中的使用频率比较高,是对外经济贸易领域中常用的外事文书之一。作用类似留言条但比较庄重,主要用来提醒、督促收件人,交际功能可以理解为“以此为证”的意思。因此,“备忘录”的使用价值更多地体现在存档备查、日后参考上。
备忘录采用书面形式,但是交际功能和版面设计又不像其它正式文本那么严格,所用词语比较简明通俗,目的在于收件人容易明白并迅速传播开来。有时为了就某一件事提醒对方,作为一种客气的催促或询问,也可送交备忘录,或就某个问题提出个人看法或建议。
备忘录既可以在不同单位之间使用,又可以在本单位各部门之间使用;既可以在上级和下级之间使用,又可以在同事之间使用;既可以是单位对个人,也可以是个人对单位。
一、备忘录概述 An Overview
汉语的“备忘录”来自英语的memorandum,实际应用中通常使用其缩写形式memo,作标题时一定要大写首字母,经常四个字母都大写。
备忘录由单方面发出,由标题、正文、署名、发文日期和地点四部分组成。标题包括事由和文种名称,有时也仅写文种名称,即“备忘录”。
备忘录的基本格式如下:
标题 Memo
收件人   To:
发件人   From:
发文日期  Date:
事由    Subject:
正文    Message:
上述小标题打在标题MEMO的左下方,也就是版面左上端。各项小标题可以大写首字母,也可全部大写。标题包括事由和文种名称,有时也仅写文种名称,即“备忘录”。
收件人是指备忘录目标读者的姓名;如果人多,则写明部门名称。发件人是指撰写该备忘录的人,也有可能是指以谁的名义发出。日期一般采用“月、日、年”的格式,其中“月”应当使用单词,而不是阿拉伯数字。
为了使整体美观平衡,收件人、发件人等小标题应当上下对齐。如果备忘录发给多个部门或个人,左下端可注明Copy to字样。
备忘录一般使用空白信笺,或写在普通纸上。与信函和报告相比,内容在于叙述事实,不编号、不盖章,也不使用致敬语,不签名,也不用写客套话。
英语商务备忘录的“事由”标题,英语表述可以是以下数种形式中的任何一个:
Subject:   Autumn Trading Fair
SUBJECT:  Benefits Coordinator Suggests Pinggu Outing
Subj.:    Christmas Celebration
Re:     New Year Party
如果你选择使用标题形式写出“事由”,要注意用词应当概括性强、言简意赅。
“事由”是备忘录的“题眼”,作用在于突出备忘录的写作目的或其主要内容,使收件人迅速识别备忘录的主要意图,判断应由哪个业务部门处理、与自己是否有关系。事由一项等于备忘录的标题;换句话说,备忘录的主旨应当体现在事由的表述之中。
请比较以下同一个会议纪录的六种事由标题,显然前面两种是错的,都是“第二次董事会会议”的直译,可是英语版本遵循了原文的词序,给人一种“第二届董事会会议”的印象。从第三个版本起,一个比一个具体而明确,尤其以最后一个清楚:
Minutes of the meeting of the Second Board of Directors
Minutes of the Meeting of the Second Board of Directors
Minutes of the Second Meeting of the Board of Directors
Minutes of the Second Meeting: Board of Directors
Board of Directors: Minutes of the Second Meeting
Board of Directors: Meeting Minutes, October 23, 2007
请比较以下五种事由标题,显然一种比一种简练,“英语味儿”也更强一些。其中的诀窍便是舍弃次要信息,突出主题信息。
SUBJECT: International Fashion Exhibition of 2007 at Wangfujing in Beijing
SUBJECT: Beijing 2007 Golden Street International Fashion Exhibition
Subject: 2007 Beijing Wangfujing International Fashion Show
Subject: Beijing 2007 International Fashion Show
Subj: Beijing Fashion Show 2007
请注意这么做并非是要改变具体活动的名称(活动名称一般由公司上司决定,定后最好不要变更),而是因为备忘录用于内部信息交流,可以更多地沿用大家口头上的简称说法,方便同事之间讨论中快速交流。
二、上级致下级 Memos from the Management
例1.推迟圣诞晚会备忘录 (Postponing the staff Christmas party)
TO: All Staff
FROM: Management
DATE: November 9, 2007
SUBJECT: STAFF CHRISTMAS PARTY
It's that time of year again. As you all know, Christmas is our busiest season of the year. Every year it is a struggle for management and supervisors to find the time and energy to organize a staff Christmas party. This year, we have decided to postpone the Christmas party until after our busy season
Party Details:
•    Date: Third Saturday in January
•    Theme: Celebration
•    Food: Turkey, Christmas pudding, smoked salmon
•    Special events: Karaoke and belly dancing
We apologize that the celebration will have to wait until the new year, but we guarantee that it will be worth the wait. Anyone interested in volunteering to help out with the event is encouraged to call Lucy, our events coordinator. Lucy's cell phone number is 1234-567-8900. Regarding this matter, please contact her outside of business hours.
Thank you.
Management
例2.公司转制吹风会备忘录 (About the company merger)
MEMORANDUM
Date: September 21, 2007
To: Staff Members including foreign employees
From: Zhang Liang, President
Re: Company Merger
Perhaps you have heard rumors of all sorts about the future of our company. Some say it is going out of business, some say it is to be closed, and still some say it is merging with some other company belonging to a mysterious businessman from Shanghai.
But I am pleased to tell you that the last is true. We are merging.
Effective January 1, 2007, our company will become a wholly owned subsidiary of Shanghai Hengguang Textiles Company. Board members of our would-be parent company asked me to let you know of their sincere intentions to carry on operation at this company on an autonomous basis.
Perhaps more important should be this message from our future bosses: all the employees who are currently on the payroll here will be retained.
Personally I believe there are many benefits to be gained from the acquisition8. About these I would like to speak to you in detail. For this purpose there will be a company-wide meeting in the auditorium on Tuesday, September 26, 2007, at eight o’clock.
After the meeting there will be a free lunch provided by the new boss, and members of the Shanghai company will be on hand to personally answer any questions.
I look forward to seeing each of you at the luncheon on September 26.
例 3.公司规定变动备忘录 (About the phone policy change)
To: Marketing Department
From: Stan Clark, Vice President
Date: December 15, 2006
Subject: 2007 Phone Policy Change
On January 1, 2007, our company is implementing a new phone policy. Because of customer complaints that our phones ring forever, we are requiring all employees to make a good-faith attempt to answer their phones within the first three rings. Please review this document before that date to ensure you understand and can implement the new phone protocols.
Over the past three years, our company has averaged four rings to pickup outside lines. This statistic is based on over 10,000 incoming calls.
According to Phony Ring Institute (PRI) in Boulder, Colorado, our company's phone ring response rate is well below the national average for competitive companies in our sector.
From January 1, 2007 on, please answer the phone on the first three rings. If you have any questions about this new policy please contact me in the next few weeks.
例 4.新报告制度备忘录 (About the new monthly reporting system)
From: Management
To: Southeast Area Sales Staff
Re: New Monthly Reporting System
Date: December 21, 2006
We’d like to quickly go over some of the changes in the new monthly sales reporting system that we discussed at Tuesday’s special meeting. First of all, we'd once again like to stress that this new system will save you a lot of time when reporting future sales. We understand that you have concerns about the amount of time that will be initially required for inputting your client data. But we are confident that you will all soon enjoy the benefits of this new system.
Here is a look at the procedure you will need to follow to complete your area's client list:
1.    Log on to the company web site at
2.    http://www.picklesandmore.com.
3.    Enter your user ID and password (These will be issued next week).
4.    Once you have logged on, click on "New Client".
5.    Enter the appropriate client information.
6.    Repeat steps 3 and 4 until you have entered all of your clients.
7.    Once this information has been entered, select "Place Order".
8.    Choose the client from the drop down list "Clients".
9.    Choose the products from the drop down list "Products".
10.    Choose the shipping specifications from the drop down list "Shipping".
11.    Click on the "Process Order" button.
As you can see, once you have entered the appropriate client information, processing orders will require no paperwork on your part.
Thank you all for your help in putting this new system into place.
Best regards,
Management
例5.辞退员工备忘录 (Terminating an employee)
FROM: John Larson, Division Manager
TO: E. Lillian Hutchinson, Product Engineer
SUBJECT: Termination of Employment
October 10, 2007
Over the past six months your supervisor and I have worked with you regarding your difficulties in finishing assignments on time.
Recently, however, the failure to meet deadlines resulted in the loss of two important contracts.
We feel that although you have the necessary technical skills, your work style is not compatible with this company's requirements.
Therefore, it is with considerable regret that your employment contract must be terminated, effective Friday, October 25.
I have attached an outline of your termination benefits that include:
•    conversion options regarding your company pension;
•    insurance and profit-sharing plans; and
•    severance pay.
I sincerely regret having to take this step. I would like to assure you, however, that our policy on giving references is to release only employment dates.
例6.不得增聘任何员工 (No staff increase without President’s permission)
To: All Division Managers
From: Steve Anderson
Subject: No Staff Additions
Date: October 1st, 2007
Effective immediately, there will be no staff increase during the fourth quarter without my personal permission. This decision stems from our dismal profits in the first three quarters of the year. We simply have to reduce expenses wherever possible, no matter how much inconvenience it may incur.
Employees who leave the company during the fourth quarter will not be replaced without my approval. I realize this may be a genuine hardship in some divisions, but let’s see if we can double up somehow without hiring replacements. All pending requisitions for additional staff are hereby cancelled.
I’ll be willing to listen if you believe these restrictions promise catastrophe, but I want you know that deviations from these rulings will be hard to sell.
Adapted from: 《现代商务英语写作集萃》P.311
例7.引进合伙人(Admission of a new partner)
To: Staff Members
From: John Tam, Chair of the Board
Subject: Admission of a New Partner

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