对外经济贸易大学英语学院考研辅导-英美概况

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对外经贸大学英语学院考研专业课辅导资料
                   英美概况
The Puritans清教徒----The Puritans were wealthy, well-educated gentlemen. They wanted to purify the Church of England and threatened with religious persecution, the Puritans leaders saw the New world as the a refuge provided by God for those He meant to save.
清教徒(Puritan),是指要求清除英国国教中天主教残余的改革派。其字词于16世纪60年代开始使用,源于拉丁文 的Purus,意为清洁。 清教徒信奉加尔文主义,认为《圣经》才是唯一最高权威,任何教会或个人都不能成为传统权威的解释者和维护者的基督徒。清教先驱者产生于玛丽一世统治后期,流亡于欧洲大陆的英国新教团体中。及后,部分移居至美洲。

The Bill of Rights权利法案;人权法案;人权法案<美国宪法前十条修正法案为人权法案----In 1789, James Madison introduced in the House of Representatives a series of amendments which later were drafted into twelve proposed amendments and sent to the states for ratification. Ten of them were ratified in 1791 and the first ten amendments to the constitution were called the Bills of Rights because they were to insure individual liberties.
《权利法案》(Bill of rights)指的是美国宪法中第一至第十条宪法修正案。当美国宪法草案提交各州立法机构批准时,有些人提出了宪法无法保障人民基本权利的疑虑。对此,支持宪法草案的联邦党人向美国人民保证,将会在第一届国会会期时在宪法中加入权利法案。在宪法获批准后第一届国会开会。大多数议员支持权利法案应该被提出,而有关的权利也应该在宪法中受到保护。起草权利法案的任务就落到了詹姆斯•麦迪逊的身上。麦迪逊在《弗吉尼亚权利法案》的基础上开始着手进行权利法案的起草工作。人们也同意,权利法案将会以宪法修正案的形式被加入到宪法中去,以避免直接修改宪法而需要再次进行冗长的宪法批准过程。1789年最初有12条修正案被提出,但其中2条未能通过。1791年12月15日,其余的10条修正案获得通过,成为现在所称的《权利法案》。权利法案草案中的第11条在1992年最终获得批准,成为宪法第27条修正案。这条修正案禁止国会提高对议员的薪酬。

The Emancipation Proclamation解放奴隶公告;解放奴隶宣言;解放黑奴宣言----After the Civil war began, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation to win more support at home and abroad. It granted freedom to all slaves in areas still controlled by the Confederacy.
《解放奴隶宣言》(The Emancipation Proclamation)是份由美国总统亚伯拉罕•林肯公布的宣言,其主张所有美利坚邦联叛乱下的领土之黑奴应享有自由,然而豁免的对象包含未脱离联邦的边境州,以及联邦掌控下的诸州。此宣言仅立即解放少部分奴隶,但实质上强化联邦军掌控邦联的领土后这些黑奴自由的权威性,并为最终废除全美奴隶制度预先铺路。

Pilgrims Thanksgiving Day感恩节----The Pilgrims in 1620, 201 of them sailed to the New World in a ship called Mayflower. The first winter after their arrival was very cold and when spring came, half of them were dead. Then the Indians came to their help and taught them how to grow corn. They had a good harvest that year. So they invited the Indians and held the first Thanksgiving celebration in America to give thanks to God.
感恩节(Thanksgiving Day),美国和加拿大节日,由美国首创的,原意是为了感谢印第安人,后来人们常在这一天感谢他人。自1941年起,感恩节是在每年11月的第四个星期四,在这一天起将休假两天,都要和自己的家人团聚,不管多忙(有些特殊岗位除外)都是如此。感恩节在每年11月22-28日之间,感恩节是美国国定假日中最地道、最美国式的节日,加拿大的感恩节则起始于1879年,是在每年10月第二个星期一,与美国的哥伦布日相同。

The Chunnel英法海底隧道----In 1985 the British government and French government decided to build a channel tunnel, which is called “Chunnel”, under the Straits of Dover so that England and France could be joined together by road. The Chunnel was open to traffic in May 1994.
英吉利海峡隧道(The Channel Tunnel)又称英法海底隧道或欧洲隧道(Eurotunnel),是一条把英国英伦三岛连接往欧洲法国的铁路隧道,于1994年5月6日开通。它由三条长51km的平行隧洞组成,总长度153km,其中海底段的隧洞长度为3×38km,是目前世界上最长的海底隧道。两条铁路洞衬砌后的直径为7.6m,开挖洞径为8.36~8.78m;中间一条后勤服务洞衬砌后的直径为4.8m,开挖洞径为5.38~5.77m。从1986年2月12日法、英两国签订关于隧道连接的坎特布利条约(Treaty of Canterbury)到1994年5月7日正式通车,历时8年多,耗资约100亿英镑(约150亿美元),也是世界上规模最大的利用私人资本建造的工程项目。

Eisteddfod威尔士诗人、音乐家大会——“爱诗特德赋”。----Eisteddfod is the Welsh word for “sitting” National Eidteddfod is the most famous festival of music and verse in Wales. It takes place each August and lasts for about a week. The highlight of the festival is competition for the best epic poem about Wales written and read in Welsh. The winner is crowned Board, considered the supreme honour in Wales. In this way the Welsh people keep the Welsh language and culture alive.
每年威尔士人都要举行威尔士音乐诗歌节,这个一年一度的节日被称为“爱诗特德赋”
19世纪重新流行、一年一度的威尔士诗人、音乐家大会;全国(或地区)诗歌音乐比赛会

The Celts凯尔特族----The Celts came to Britain in three main waves. The first wave were the Gales, the second wave were the Brythons and the Belgae came about 150BC. The Celts were practised farmers. The Celtic tribes are ancestors of the Highland Scots, the Irish and the Welsh, And their languages are the basis of both Welsh and Gaelic. They religion was Druidism.
凯尔特人为公元前2000年活动在中欧的一些有着共同的文化和语言特质的有亲缘关系的民族的统称。主要分布在当时的高卢、北意大利(山南高卢)、西班牙、不列颠与爱尔兰,与日耳曼人并称为蛮族。现代意义上的凯尔特人,或称其后裔,仍坚持使用他们自己的语言(譬如,爱尔兰的盖尔语),并以自己的凯尔特人血统而自豪。

Norman Conquest诺曼征服(1066年诺曼底威廉公爵对英格兰的军事征服) ----The Norman Conquest of 1066 is perhaps the best-known event in English history. William the conqueror confiscated almost all the land and gave it to his Norman followers. He replaced the weak Saxon rule with a strong Norman government. So the feudal system was completely established in England.
以诺曼底公爵威廉(约1028~1087)为首的法国封建主对英国的征服。1066年初,英王忏悔者爱德华(1042~1066在位)死后无嗣,韦塞克斯伯爵哈罗德二世被推选为国王。威廉以爱德华曾面许继位为理由,要求获得王位。 
诺曼征服前,英国社会的政治制度是贵族民主制,国王和贤人会议共同实行统治。国王虽然把一些政治权利下放给了教俗贵族,但不普遍。当时也曾出现过国王的赐地,但这种赐地是无条件的或者仅以服军役为条件,没有建立起国王与受地者之间的君臣关系。只有在诺曼征服后,国王成为全国土地的最高所有者,他通过土地分封,建立了完备的封建君臣制度,从而使英国最终建立了具有上述两大特点的封建政治制度。  
诺曼征服是英国史上的一个大事件,它为600年来盎格鲁萨克森封建制度的发展做了一个总结,又开创了英国封建制度全盛时期的新时代、新局面,从诺曼征服到亨利二世统治结束近一个半世纪,英国封建制度从基础到上层建筑全面建立,到13世纪达到极盛。

Alfred the Great阿尔弗雷德大帝(英国国王)----He was king of Wessex, one of the seven Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms. It was he who led the Anglo-Saxon to flight against the invading Danes and maintained peace for a long time. Alfred was not only a brave king at wartime, but also a wise king at peacetime. He encouraged education and introduced a legal system. He is known as “the father of the British navy”.
阿尔弗雷德(849~899),英格兰韦塞克斯王国国王(871~899)。年轻时受过军事训练。868年从军,随兄艾特尔雷德国王率军支援麦西亚王国抗击丹麦人入侵。871年丹麦人入侵韦塞克斯时即位。在危难之际,他退守山林,重整军队,于876年在埃丁顿之战中击败丹麦军队,迫其议和,撤至伦敦到切斯特以北地区 (史称"丹麦法区")。此后,为巩固国防,派兵镇守边关,修建城堡,并积极扩充海军。885年率军击退入侵肯特王国的丹麦军队,并于次年占领伦敦。892~896年再次率军击溃从欧洲大陆进犯的丹麦军队。在位期间,重视文化教育,翻译大批古典名著,并编纂《盎格鲁撒克逊编年史》。

Geoffrey Chaucer杰弗里•乔叟(英国中世纪著名作家)----He was an important English poet in the fourteenth century. His best known is The Canterbury Tales, which describes a group of pilgrims travelling to Canterbury to visit Thomas Becket’s tomb. Because he was the first important English poet to write in English. He has been known as the “Father of English Poetry”.
杰弗里•乔叟(Geoffrey Chaucer,1340年—1400年),英国中世纪著名作家,出生于一个酒商家庭。1359年随爱德华三世的部队远征法国,被法军俘虏,不久以黄金赎回。乔叟当过国王侍从,出使许多欧洲国家,两度访问意大利,发现了但丁、薄伽丘和彼特拉克的作品,对他的文学创作起了极大的作用。代表作:《坎特伯雷故事集》(The Canterbury Tales)其他作品《公爵夫人之书》(Book of the Duchess)、《声誉之宫》(The House of Fame)、《百鸟会议》(The Parliament of Fowles)、《贤妇传说》(The Legend of Good Women)以及《特洛伊罗斯与克丽西达》(Troilus and Criseyde)。乔叟于1400年10月25日在伦敦逝世,葬于威斯敏斯特教堂里的“诗人之角”。乔叟的死因不明,可能是被谋杀,英国的中世纪研究专家特里•琼斯曾出了一本书《谁谋杀了乔叟?》。
乔叟率先采用伦敦方言写作,并创作“英雄双行体”,对英国民族语言和文学的发展影响极大,故被誉为“英国诗歌之父”。

The Black Death黑死病----It is a modern name given to the dearly bubonic plague, an epidemic disease spread through Europe in the fourteenth century particularly in 1348-1349. It came without warning, and without any cue. In England, it killed almost half of the total population, causing far-reaching economic consequences.
黑死病(Black Death或Black Plague医学称之bubonic Plague)是人类历史上最严重的瘟疫之一。起源于亚洲西南部,约在1340年代散布到欧洲,而“黑死病”之名是当时欧洲的称呼。这场瘟疫在全世界造成了大约7500万人死亡,其中2500万为欧洲人。根据估计,中世纪欧洲约有三分之一的人死于黑死病。

The Wars of Roses玫瑰战争----the name Wars of the Roses was refer to the battles between the House of Lancaster, symbolized by the read rose, and that of York, symbolized by the white, from 1455 to 1485. Henry Tudor, descendant of Duke of Lancaster won victory at Bosworth Fireld in 1485 and put ht country under the rule of the Tudors. From these Wars, English feudalism received its death blow. The great medieval nobility was much weakened.
玫瑰战争(Wars of the Roses) (1455年–1487年),或称蔷薇战争,通常指英国兰开斯特王朝(House of Lancaster)和约克王朝(House of York)的支持者之间为了英格兰王位的断续内战。两个家族都是金雀花王朝(Plantagenet)皇族的分支,是英王爱德华三世的后裔。玫瑰战争不是当时所用的名字,它来源于两个皇族所选的家徽,兰开斯特的红玫瑰和约克的白玫瑰。

The Glorious Revolution of 1688光荣革命---- In 1685 Charles II died and was succeeded by his brother James II. James was brought up in exile in Europe, was a Catholic. He hoped to rule without giving up his personal religious vies. But England was no more tolerant of a Catholic king in 1688 than 40 years ago. So the English politicians rejected James II, and appealed to a Protestant king, William of Orange, to invade and take the English throne. William landed in England in 1688. The takeover was relatively smooth, with no bloodshed, nor any execution of the king. This was known as the Glorious Revolution.
1688年,英国资产阶级和新贵族发动的推翻詹姆斯二世的统治、防止天主教复辟的非暴力政变。这场革命未有流血,因此历史学家将其称之为“光荣革命”。说明君主立宪制政体即起源于这次光荣革命。
当时,支持议会的辉格党人与部分托利党人为避免信奉天主教的詹姆士二世传位给刚出生的儿子,而把詹姆士二世废绌。在废黜国王之后,他们把王位传于原本的继承者,詹姆士二世的女儿玛丽和时任荷兰奥兰治执政的女婿威廉。威廉带兵进入英国,未发一枪,便使詹姆士二世仓惶出逃。议会重掌大权,而威廉亦即位后成为威廉三世。至此,英国议会与国王近半个世纪的斗争以议会的胜利而告结束。

Blood Mary血腥玛丽----It is the nickname given to Mary I, the English Queen who succeeded to the throne after Henry VIII. She was a devout Catholic and had so many Protestants burnt to death that she is remembered less by her official title Mary I by her nickname Blood Mary.
血腥玛丽的原型为玛丽一世(Mary I,1516年2月18日~1558年11月17日),英格兰和爱尔兰女王(理论上她是从1553年7月6日, 实际上从7月19日在位一直到1558年11月17日她去世时)。 她是都铎王朝的第四任君主,极其虔诚的天主教徒。 她的主要事迹是曾经努力把英国从新教恢复到罗马天主教(1555年)。 为此,她曾处决了差不多三百个反对者。而被称为“血腥玛丽”(Bloody Mary)。从此以后,Bloody Mary在英语中就成了女巫的同义词。 但是她的宗教政策在很大程度上,被她的继任者伊丽莎白一世所颠覆。

Thatcherism撒切尔主义----The election of 1979 returned the Conservative Party to power and Margaret Thatcher became the first woman prime minister in Britain. Her policies are popularly referred to as state-owned industries, the use of monetarist policies to control inflation, the weaking of trade forces unions, the strengthening of the role of market forces in the economy, and an emphasis on law and order.
所谓撒切尔主义是指撒切尔夫人上台后在保守党内出现的一股占统治地位的“新右派”势力的意识形态,是当代西方“新自由主义”与“保守主义”的混血儿”。在撒切尔主义的主宰下,经济上的不平等现象越来越严重,进而导致了在社会地位和其他领域方面的不平等。

British disease英国病----The term “British disease” is now often used to characterize Britain’s economic decline.
英国病简单的说:有自我毁灭的民族怀疑悲观情绪。这种病是由英国精英阶层中所谓的舆论制造者们散布的。这些人自以为知道什么是人们大家的最佳选择。这种病的表现为:总喜欢轻视人们的国家,赞扬别的国家;贬低人们的成就,羡慕别人的成就;蔑视人们的国家制度,赞许别的民族的制度;嘲笑人们的每一个全国性人物。悲观主义者们已经散布了一种毒素。太多的政治家、学者、教会神职人员、作家、评论家和新闻记者们表现出新英国病的全面症状。

Constitutional monarchy君主立宪制----It is a political system that has been practised in Britain since the Glorious revolution of 1688. According to this system, the Constitution is superior to the Monarch. In law, the Monarch has many supreme powers, but in practice, the real power of monarchy has been greatly reduced and today the Queen acts solely on the advice of her ministers. She reigns but does not rule. The real power lies in the Parliament, or to be exact, in the House of Commons.
君主立宪制(又称立宪君主制,constitutional monarchy),是指在宪政体制下由一个世袭或选出的君主作为元首的政体。
君主立宪制的特点是国家元首是一位君主(皇帝、国王、大公等等,教皇有时也被看做是一个君主)。与其他国家元首不同的是,一般君主是终身制的,君主的地位从定义上就已经高于国家的其他公民(这是君主与一些其他元首如独裁者的一个区别,一般独裁者将自己定义为公民的一员,但出于客观需要他必须掌权为国家服务),往往君主属于一个特别的阶层(贵族),此外世袭制也往往是君主的一个特点(不过在这一点上也有例外)。
君主虽然是国家元首(head of state),但君主的产生方式与权力,会依各个国家的制度而不同;纵使是同一个国家,往往在不同时期,君主的产生方式与权力范围也各不相同。

Privy Council枢密院----A consultative body of the British monarch. Its origin can be traced back to the times of the Norman Kings. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, its importance was gradually diminished and replaced by the Cabinet. Today, it is still a consultation body of the British monarch, Its membership is about 400, and includes al Cabinet ministers, the speaker of the House of Commons, the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, and senior British and Commonwealth statesmen.
英王的私人顾问机关,也是代表王权的最高行政机关。它是由国王的佃户总管、宫廷官员和国王选定的其他人组成的王国法院演变而来的。中世纪时,成为协助国王处理立法、司法和行政事务的中央政府机构。
1688年“光荣革命”后,英国逐步确立了君主立宪政体,枢密院遂失去实际权力。18世纪初,原枢密院外交委员会发展为内阁。从此,枢密院名义上仍是英国最高政府机构,实际上大部分权力由内阁行使。其任务主要是主持王室典礼和内阁宣誓就职仪式,处理某些上诉案件,以枢密院令的形式宣布议会的召开、休会和解散,对外宣战或媾和以及发布内阁制定的部分政府命令等。枢密院成员包括全体入阁大臣、大主教 2人、全权大使、下院议长、大法官以及国内的和英联邦的著名人士等等,总计约 300多人。他们均由首相提名,英王任命,任期终身。院全体会议只在英王加冕或结婚、内阁就职时召开,法定人数为 3人。院内设有科学和工业研究委员会、农业研究委员会、医药研究委员会等各种委员会,担负重要的研究责任。其中司法委员会最为重要,它负责审理教会法院、捕获法院以及英联邦某些成员国和殖民地司法机关的上诉案件。
当君主遵照枢密院的建议行事时,一般会称之为“会同枢”或“女皇会同枢”。全体枢密院成员则称为“女皇陛下最尊贵的枢密院全体大臣”,有时又会写成“全体大臣及其他成员”的字样。掌管枢密院的首长是枢密院议长(Lord President of the Council),担任此职的人士除了是内阁成员外,也是排名第四高的国务大臣。按照惯例,枢密院议长还会兼任上议院或下议院的领袖。文书是枢密院内另一重要职位,所有由枢密院发出的指令,都要由文书所签署,方能生效。

The National Health Service国家医疗保健服务----It is a very important part of the welfare system in Britain. It is a nationwide organization based on Acts of Parliament. It provides all kinds of free or nearly free medical treatment both in hospital and outside. It is financed mainly by payments by the state out of general taxation. People are not obliged to use this service. The service is achieving its main objectives with outstanding success.

Comprehensive schools综合学校----Comprehensives schools take pupils without reference to ability or aptitude and provide a wide-ranging secondary education for all or most of the children in a district.
维基百科解释:The term is commonly used in relation to the United Kingdom, where comprehensive schools were introduced in the late 1940s to the early 1970s. It corresponds broadly to the German Gesamtschule and to thehigh school in the United States and Canada. About 90% of British pupils attend comprehensive schools.
Most comprehensives are secondary schools for children from the age of 11 to at least 16, but in a few areas there are comprehensive middle schools, and in some places the secondary level is divided into two, for students aged 11 to 14 and those aged 14 to 18, roughly corresponding to the US middle school (or junior high school) and high school respectively.

Reuters路透社----It was founded in 1851 by the German, Julius Reuter. It is now a publicly owned company, employing over 11000 staff in 80 countries. It has more than 1300 staff journalists and photographers.
路透社(Reuters,LSE:RTR,NASDAQ: RTRSY)是世界前三大的多媒体新闻通讯社,提供各类新闻和金融数据,在128个国家运行。路透提供新闻报导给报刊、电视台等各式媒体,并向来以迅速、准确享誉国际。另一方面,路透提供工具和平台,例如股价和外币汇率,让交易员可以分析金融数据和管理交易风险;同时路透的系统让客户可以经由因特网完成买卖,取代电话或是纽约证券交易所的买卖大厅等人工交易方式,它的电子交易服务串连了金融社群。路透社是最早的通讯社,也是目前英国最大的通讯社和西方四大通讯社之一。
路透社由英国人保罗•朱利叶斯•路透(Paul Julius Reuter)1850年在德国亚琛创办,次年迁往英国伦敦。1865年,路透把他的私人通讯社扩展成为一家大公司。1916年被改组为路透有限公司。它素以快速的新闻报道被世界各地报刊广为采用而闻名于世。路透社名义上是私人企业主所有,实际上受政府控制,是英国的官方喉舌。路透社新闻报道的主要对象是国外,它的国际新闻紧密配合英国政府的外交活动,它对体育新闻也很重视。该社的经济新闻主要是商情报告,为英国和西方大企业服务。
路透社是路透集团的一部分,业务占路透集团的5%。它素以快速的新闻报道被世界各地报刊广为采用而闻名于世。其股权属于代表伦敦出版的全国性报纸的报业主联合会 (the newspaper publishers association),代表郡级报纸的报联社 (pressassociation)、澳大利亚报联社(australian associatedpress) 和新西兰报联社 (new zealand press association)。这四家股东都有代表参加路透社董事会,它们之间有一项确保路透社在新闻报道中所谓“独立性”和“正直性”的“托拉斯协议”。
路透社的消息大致有特急快讯、急电和普通电讯三种。这三种电讯的时效按顺序递减,篇幅按顺序递增。特急快讯主要针对商业用户,快讯主要适用于政府机关及电子媒介订户,普通电讯则主要服务于其他新闻媒介订户。

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