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Amerigo Vespucci----Amerigo Vespucci, a navigator, proved that the land was not India,but a new continent. Therefore, the land was named America after.

The Puritans-----The Puritans were wealthy, well-educated gentlemen. They wanted to purify the Church of England and threatened with religious persecution, the Puritans leaders saw the New world as the a refuge provided by God for those He meant to save.

The Bill of Rights----In 1789, James Madison introduced in the House of Representatives a series of amendments which later were drafted into twelve proposed amendments and sent to the states for ratification. Ten of them were ratified in 1791 and the first ten amendments to the constitution were called the Bills of Rights because they were to insure individual liberties.
The Emancipation Proclamation----After the Civil war began, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation to win more support at home and abroad. It granted freedom to all slaves in areas still controlled by the Confederacy.

Pilgrims Thanksgiving Day----The Pilgrims in 1620, 201 of them sailed to the New World in a ship called Mayflower. The first winter after their arrival was very cold and when spring came, half of them were dead. Then the Indians came to their help and taught them how to grow corn. They had a good harvest that year. So they invited the Indians and held the first Thanksgiving celebration in America to give thanks to God.
The Chunnel----In 1985 the British government and French government decided to build a channel tunnel, which is called “Chunnel”, under the Straits of Dover so that England and France could be joined together by road. The Chunnel was open to traffic in May 1994.

Eisteddfod----Eisteddfod is the Welsh word for “sitting” National Eidteddfod is the most famous festival of music and verse in Wales. It takes place each August and lasts for about a week. The highlight of the festival is competition for the best epic poem about Wales written and read in Welsh. The winner is crowned Board, considered the supreme honour in Wales. In this way the Welsh people keep the Welsh language and culture alive.
Cockney----A cockney is a Londoner who is born within the sound of Bow Bells-the Bells of the church of St. Mary-LeBow in east London.

Stonehenge----It is a group of huge monuments of grant rock Slabs on salisbury plain in Southwest England built as long ago as the New Stone Age. It is generally believed that stonehenge served some sort of religious purposes.

The Celts----The Celts came to Britain in three main waves. The first wave were the Gales, the second wave were the Brythons and the Belgae came about 150BC. The Celts were practised farmers. The Celtic tribes are ancestors of the Highland Scots, the Irish and the Welsh, And their languages are the basis of both Welsh and Gaelic. They religion was Druidism.

Norman Conquest----The Norman Conquest of 1066 is perhaps the best-known event in English history. William the conqueror confiscated almost all the land and gave it to his Norman followers. He replaced the weak Saxon rule with a strong Norman government. So the feudal system was completely established in England.
Alfred the Great----He was king of Wessex, one of the seven Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms. It was he who led the Anglo-Saxon to flight against the invading Danes and maintained peace for a long time. Alfred was not only a brave king at wartime, but also a wise king at peacetime. He encouraged education and introduced a legal system. He is known as “the father of the British navy”.

St. Augustine----In 597,Pope Gregory I sent St. Augustine, the Prior of St. Andrew’s Monastery in Rome, to England to convert the heathen English to Christianity. That year, St. Augustine became the first Archbishop of Canterbury. Augustine was remarkably successful in converting the king and the nobility, but the conversion of the common people was largely due to the missionary activities of the monks in the north.
Domesday Book----It is a book compiled by a group of clerks under the sponsorship of King William the First in 1086. The book was in fact a property record. It was the result of a general survey of England. It recorded the extent, value, state of cultivation, and ownership of the land. It was one of the important measures adopted by William I to establish the full feudal system in England. Today, it is kept in the Public Records Office in London.

Geoffrey Chaucer----He was an important English poet in the fourteenth century. His best known is The Canterbury Tales, which describes a group of pilgrims travelling to Canterbury to visit Thomas Becket’s tomb. Because he was the first important English poet to write in English. He has been known as the “Father of English Poetry”.

The Black Death----It is a modern name given to the dearly bubonic plague, an epidemic disease spread through Europe in the fourteenth century particularly in 1348-1349. It came without warning, and without any cue. In England, it killed almost half of the total population, causing far-reaching economic consequences.

The Wars of Roses玫瑰战争----the name Wars of the Roses was refer to the battles between the House of Lancaster, symbolized by the read rose, and that of York, symbolized by the white, from 1455 to 1485. Henry Tudor, descendant of Duke of Lancaster won victory at Bosworth Fireld in 1485 and put ht country under the rule of the Tudors. From these Wars, English feudalism received its death blow. The great medieval nobility was much weakened.

The Glorious Revolution of 1688光荣革命---- In 1685 Charles II died and was succeeded by his brother James II. James was brought up in exile in Europe, was a Catholic. He hoped to rule without giving up his personal religious vies. But England was no more tolerant of a Catholic king in 1688 than 40 years ago. So the English politicians rejected James II, and appealed to a Protestant king, William of Orange, to invade and take the English throne. William landed in England in 1688. The takeover was relatively smooth, with no bloodshed, nor any execution of the king. This was known as the Glorious Revolution.

Blood Mary血腥玛丽----It is the nickname given to Mary I, the English Queen who succeeded to the throne after Henry VIII. She was a devout Catholic and had so many Protestants burnt to death that she is remembered less by her official title Mary I by her nickname Blood Mary.

Thatcherism撒切尔主义----The election of 1979 returned the Conservative Party to power and Margaret Thatcher became the first woman prime minister in Britain. Her policies are popularly referred to as state-owned industries, the use of monetarist policies to control inflation, the weaking of trade forces unions, the strengthening of the role of market forces in the economy, and an emphasis on law and order.
The Trade Union Act of 1871工会法----It legalized the trade unions and give financial security. It meant that in law there was no difference between money for benefic purposes and collecting it to support strike action.

Agribusiness农业产业----The new farming has been called “agribusiness”, because it is equipped and managed like an industrial business with a set of inputs into the processes which occur on the farm and outputs or products which leave the farm.
British disease英国病----The term “British disease” is now often used to characterize Britain’s economic decline.

Constitutional monarchy君主立宪制----It is a political system that has been practised in Britain since the Glorious revolution of 1688. According to this system, the Constitution is superior to the Monarch. In law, the Monarch has many supreme powers, but in practice, the real power of monarchy has been greatly reduced and today the Queen acts solely on the advice of her ministers. She reigns but does not rule. The real power lies in the Parliament, or to be exact, in the House of Commons.
Privy Council枢密院----A consultative body of the British monarch. Its origin can be traced back to the times of the Norman Kings. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, its importance was gradually diminished and replaced by the Cabinet. Today, it is still a consultation body of the British monarch, Its membership is about 400, and includes al Cabinet ministers, the speaker of the House of Commons, the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, and senior British and Commonwealth statesmen.

The National Health Service----It is a very important part of the welfare system in Britain. It is a nationwide organization based on Acts of Parliament. It provides all kinds of free or nearly free medical treatment both in hospital and outside. It is financed mainly by payments by the state out of general taxation. People are not obliged to use this service. The service is achieving its main objectives with outstanding success.
Comprehensive schools----Comprehensives schools take pupils without reference to ability or aptitude and provide a wide-ranging secondary education for all or most of the children in a district.

Reuters----It was founded in 1851 by the Germa
n, Julius Reuter. It is now a publicly owned company, employing over 11000 staff in 80 countries. It has more than 1300 staff journalists and photographers.
The Crown Court----A criminal court that deals with the more serious cases and holds sessions in towns throughout England and Wales. It is presided over either by a judge from the High Court of Justice or a local full-time judge.

The Great lakes----The Great Lakes are the five lakes in the northeast. They are Lake Superior which is the largest fresh water lake in the world, Lake Michigan (the only one entirely in the U.S.), Lake Huron, Lake Eire and Lake Ontario. They are all located between Canada and the United States expect Lake Michigan.
The Mississippi----The Mississippi has been called “father of waters “or” old man river”. It and Its tributaries drain one of the richest farm areas in the world. It is the fourth longest river in the world and the most important river in the United States.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin----It was a sentimental but powerful antislavery novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It converted many readers to the abolitionist cause.
Gettysburg----It refer to the short speech President Lincoln made when he dedicated the national cemetery at Gettyburg. He ended the speech with “the government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth”.

The Red Scare----When the WWI was over, there existed a highly aggressive and intolerant nationalism. Between 1919 and 1920, the Red Scare happened. On Nov.7,1919 and Jan.2,1920, the Justice Department launched two waves of mass arrests. Over 4000 suspected Communists and radical were arrested.
The New Deal----In order to deal with the Depression, President Franklin Roosevelt put forward the New Deal program. It passed a lot of New Deal laws and set up many efficient social security systems. The New Deal helped to save American democracy and the development of American economy.

Truman Doctrine----On Mar.12, 1949, President Truman put forward the Truman Doctrine in his speech to the joint session of Congress. The Doctrine meant to support any country which said it was fighting communism.
Marshall Plan----It was announced by George Marshall on June.5, 1947, and was the economic aid plan for Western Europe. It was also used to prevent the loss of Western Europe into the Soviet sphere.

London smog----In 195, the sulphur dioxide in the four-day London smog, an unhealthy atmosphere formed by mixing smoke and dirt with fog. It left 4000 people dead or dying. Since then most cities in Britain have introduced “clean air zones” whereby factories and households are only allowed to burn smokeless fuel.
Family Doctor----In order to obtain the benefits of the NHS a person must normally be registered on the list of a general practitioner, sometimes known as a “family doctor”. The family doctor gives treatment or prescribes medicine, or, if necessary, arranges for the patient to go to hospital or to be seen at home by a specialist.

Marvellous Melbourne----After the gold rush in 1850s and 1860s, there was an important revolution in transport, especially with the network of tram and railway systems. This changed the pace of urban life and the appearance of the city and soon people were calling the city “Marvellous Melbourne”. But by the 1890s outsiders were calling the city “Marvellous Melbourne” because of the bad smell of the city.
Waitangi Day----In 1840 the first official governor, William Hobson, was sent to negotiate with Maori leaders. In 1840 Hobson, representing Queen Victoria, and some Maori chiefs, signed the Treaty of Waitangi. Modern New Zealand was founded. The anniversary of the signing, February 6, is celebrated as New Zealand National Day, Waitangi Day, and is a national holiday.

Multiculturalism----The term multiculturalism was coined in Canada in the late 1960s. It was in official use in Australia by 1973. In other words, under multiculturalism migrant groups are able to speak their own language and maintain their own customs. Multiculturalism as a policy recognizes that social cohesion is attained by tolerating differences within an agreed legal and constitutional framework.
Quiet Revolution----Ever since 1763, when France lost its empire in North America to England, French Canadians have struggled to preserve their language and culture. In the early 1960s French Canadians became more vocal in their protests. In particular, they complained that were kept out of jobs in government and in some large businesses because they spoke only French. They have been struggling more rights common which was called “Quiet revolution”.

Deep Throat is the pseudonym given to the secret informant who provided information to Bob Woodward of the The Washington Post about the involvement of United States President Richard Nixon's administration in what came to be known as the Watergate scandal.
备注:Deep Throat was first introduced to the public in the 1974 book All the President's Men, written by Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, which was adapted into an Academy Award-winning film two years later. According to the authors, Deep Throat was a key source of information behind a series of articles on a scandal which played a leading role in introducing the misdeeds of the Nixon administration to the general public. The scandal would eventually lead to the resignation of President Nixon as well as prison terms for White House Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman, G. Gordon Liddy, Egil Krogh, White House Counsel Charles Colsonand John Dean, and presidential adviser John Ehrlichman.

Druid: A druid was a member of the priestly class in Gaul and possibly other parts of Celtic western Europe during the Iron Age. Following the invasion of Gaul by the Roman Empire, the druids were suppressed by the Roman government from the 1st century CE and disappeared from the written record by the 2nd century, although there may have been later survivals in the British Isles. Very little is currently known about the ancient druids as they left no written accounts about themselves, and other than a few descriptions left by Greek and Roman authors, the accuracy of which are disputed, we have no evidence about them.[1] Whilst archaeological evidence has been uncovered pertaining to the religious practices of the Celtic people, "not one single artefact or image has been unearthed that can undoubtedly be connected with the ancient Druids.

The Beatles: The Beatles were an English rock band, formed in Liverpool in 1960, and one of the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed acts in the history of popular music.[1] From 1962 the group consisted of John Lennon (rhythm guitar, vocals), Paul McCartney (bass guitar, vocals), George Harrison (lead guitar, vocals) and Ringo Starr (drums, vocals). Rooted in skiffle and 1950s rock and roll, the group later worked in many genres ranging from pop ballads to psychedelic rock, often incorporatingclassical and other elements in innovative ways. The nature of their enormous popularity, which first emerged as the "Beatlemania" fad, transformed as their songwriting grew in sophistication. The group came to be perceived as the embodiment of progressive ideals, seeing their influence extend into the social and cultural revolutions of the 1960s.

The following were some of the characteristic of Protestantism except___________
A challenging the authority of the Pope
B salvation through faith
C salvation through the church
D establishing a direct contact with God

The theory of American politics and the American Revolution originated mainlu from__________
A George Washington
B Thomas Jefferson
C John Adams
D John Locke

Which of the following is not a power of the American president?
A the president can veto any bill passed by the Congress
B the president has the authority to appoint federal judges when vacancies occur
C The president has broad powers ,with the executive branch, to issue regulations and directives regarding the work of the federal departments.
D The president has broad powers, with the executive branch, to issue regulations and directives regarding the work of the federal departments.

Which of the following statements is not correct? When the American Constitution was written,
A there was a bill of right in the Constitution
B there was no Bill of Right
C the Constitution did not have any wording guaranteeing the freedoms or the basic rights and privileges of citizens.
D a “Bill of Rights” was added to the Constitution 4 years after the Constitution was made.

Which of the following statements is not correct? When the War of Independence was over,
A each new state had its own government
B each new state made its own laws and handled all of its internal affairs.
C the national government was called the Congress with little power.
D the relationships between the states and the national government were clearly defined.

Which of the following is not true about the characteristics of Britain?
A.    Economic differences between north and south
B.    Differences of social system between Scotland and Wales.
C.    Class differences between a white-collar worker and a blue-collar worker.
D.    Cultural differences between immigrants and the British.

According to the Good Friday Agreement, Northern Ireland today should be governed by the following jurisdictions except__________
A the jurisdiction of the Republic of Ireland
B the jurisdiction of loyalist ministers
C the jurisdiction of Great Britain
D the jurisdiction of Northern Ireland

Which of the following is a private funded university in Britain
A the university of Cambridge
B the university of Oxford
C the university of Edinburgh