Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
One basic weakness in a conservation system based wholly on economic motives is that most members of the land community have no economic value. Yet these creatures are members of the biotic community and, if its stability depends on its integrity, they are entitled to continuance.
When one of these noneconomic categories is threatened and, if we happen to love it .We invert excuses to give it economic importance. At the beginning of century songbirds were supposed to be disappearing. (1) Scientists jumped to the rescue with some distinctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would eat us up if birds failed to control them. the evidence had to be economic in order to be valid.
It is painful to read these round about accounts today. We have no land ethic yet, (2) but we have at least drawn near the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us.
A parallel situation exists in respect of predatory mammals and fish-eating birds. (3) Time was when biologists somewhat over worded the evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak, or that they prey only on "worthless" species.
Some species of tree have been read out of the party by economics-minded forestersbecause they grow too slowly, or have too low a sale vale to pay as timber crops. (4) In Europe, where forestry is ecologically more advanced, the non-commercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest community, to be preserved as such, within reason.
To sum up: a system of conservation based solely on economic self-interest is hopelessly lopsided. (5) It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate, many elements in the land community that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning. It assumes, falsely, I think, that the economic parts of the biotic clock will function without the uneconomic parts.
Part C (10 points)
1 . 科学家们赶紧拿出某些明显站不住脚的证据来补救，大致说的是如果鸟儿 不能控制昆虫数量的话，昆虫就会把我们吃光。
2. 但是我们至少更倾向于承认这样一种观点：那就是鸟儿的生存是它们的固 有权利，不管其存在与否对我们是否有经济利益。
3. 曾几何时，生物学家似乎过度使用了以下这条证据：这些生物是为了维持 食物链的正常运行去捕食弱小的生物或只捕食“没有价值的”物种。
4 . 在生态林业较为先进的欧洲，没有成为商业化对象的树种被视为原始森林 群落的成员适当地加以保护。
5 . 这个系统容易忽视并最终消灭陆地群落中很多缺乏商业价值的物种，然而 这些物种对于整个生物群落的健康运行是至关重要的。