2012年中山大学博士入学考试英语试题回忆版 中山大学 2012年博士入学考试于 3月 10日 11日两天结束。 一直比较懒, 现在看到群里在讨论,
根据考场, 大体估计有三千来人参加考试。你有心的话, 就去看看官网上排的考场吧。 我看 大约一百多个。 考试地点在海珠校区一号教学楼和逸夫楼。提醒各位, 如果要报的话, 在那 两天想住的好点就要定房的。
一。阅读理解,共 30分,六篇,每篇 5个小题,每个小题 1分。难度低于六级。有两篇考研真 题。
二。完型填空,共 10分,二十个空,而且是不带选择项的。每空 0.5分。难度一般。
三。排序题,共 15分,十个选项(a-j )中选出五个来,每个 3分。有些难。内容是关于剑桥 大学。
四。英译汉 , 共 15分,从一段文章中划出五句话来,每句话 3分。难度一般。
五。汉译英,共 10分,一小段,大约有连着的五句话。国内政治方面的内容。内容记住的一 点点是:关于社会稳定,人民生活水平提高了,收入差距拉大,但是,仍然没有造成大的社 会不稳定,也是由于穷人的生活水平也相应提高了。 (这是大意,不是原句子,有心的可以 去网上找找有没有相关内容。 )
六。作文,共 20分。有两个话题,只能选一个回答。今年的是 views contradict .第二个话题 的, 没怎么懂意思。 根据我的理解是和自己看法一致的意见容易接受, 看法不一致的不容易 接受。你同意哪种观点。 (我没看懂。 )
下面, 把自己还能记住的,还有在群里收集到的相关内容贴出来。 我的大脑不是硬盘, 总会 记忆有出入,如果给各位造成了误导,请尊重下我整理资料的辛苦。同时, 如果今年参加考 试的战友,欢迎帮我改正。
When global warming finally came, it stuck with a vengeance (异乎寻常地 ). In some regions,
temperatures rose several degrees in less than a century. Sea levels shot up nearly 400 feet, flooding coastal settlements and forcing people to migrate inland. Deserts spread throughout the world as vegetation shifted drastically in North America, Europe and Asia. After driving many of the animals around them to near extinction, people were forced to abandon their old way of life for a radically new survival strategy that resulted in widespread starvation and disease. The adaptation was farming: the global-warming crisis that gave rise to it happened more than 10,000 years ago. As environmentalists convene in Rio de Janeiro this week to ponder the global climate of the future, earth scientists are in the midst of a revolution in understanding how climate has changed in the past— and how those changes have transformed human existence. Researchers have begun to piece together an illuminating picture of the powerful geological and astronomical forces that have combined to change the planet’ s environment from hot to cold, wet to dry and back again over a time period stretching back hundreds of millions of years.
Most importantly, scientists are beginning to realize that the climatic changes have had a major impact on the evolution of the human species. New research now suggests that climate shifts have played a key role in nearly every significant turning point in human evolution: from the dawn of primates (灵长目动物 ) some 65 million years ago to human ancestors rising up to walk on two legs, from the huge expansion of the human brain to the rise of agriculture. Indeed, the human history has not been merely touched by global climate change, some scientists argue, it has in some instances been driven by it.
The new research has profound implications for the environmental summit in Rio. Among other things, the findings demonstrate that dramatic climate change is nothing new for planet Earth. The benign (宜人的 ) global environment that has existed over the past 10,000 years — during which
agriculture, writing, cities and most other features of civilization appeared— is a mere bright spot in a much larger pattern of widely varying climate over the ages. In fact, the pattern of climate change in the past reveals that Earth‟ s climate will almost certainly go through dramatic changes in the future— even without the influence of human activity.
1. Farming emerged as a survival strategy because man had been obliged ________.
A) to give up his former way of life
B) to leave the coastal areas
C) to follow the ever-shifting vegetation
D) to abandon his original settlement
2. Earth scientists have come to understand that climate ________.
A) is going through a fundamental change
B) has been getting warmer for 10,000 years
C) will eventually change from hot to cold
D) has gone through periodical changes
3. Scientists believe that human evolution ________.
A) has seldom been accompanied by climatic changes
B) has exerted little influence on climatic changes
C) has largely been effected by climatic changes
D) has had a major impact on climatic changes
4. Evidence of past climatic changes indicates that ________.
A) human activities have accelerated changes of Earth‟ s environment
B) Earth‟ s environment will remain mild despite human interference
C) Earth‟ s climate is bound to change significantly in the future
D) Earth‟ s climate is unlikely to undergo substantial changes in the future
5. The message the author wishes to convey in the passage is that ________.
A) human civilization remains glorious though it is affected by climatic changes
B) mankind is virtually helpless in the face of the dramatic changes of climate
C) man has to limit his activities to slow down the global warming process
D) human civilization will continue to develop in spite of the changes of nature
American no longer expect public figures, whether in speech or in writing, to command the English language with skill and gift. Nor do they aspire to such command themselves. In his latest book, Doing Our Own Thing. The Degradation of language and Music and why we should like, care, John McWhorter, a linguist and controversialist of mixed liberal and conservative views, sees the triumph of 1960s counter-culture as responsible for the decline of formal English. Blaming the permissive 1960s is nothing new, but this is not yet another criticism against the decline in education. Mr.McWhorter’ s academic speciality is language history and change, and he sees gradual disappearance of “ whom ” ,for example, to be natural and no more regranttable than the loss of the case-endings of Old English
But the cult of the authentic and the personal, “ doing our own thing ” , has spelt the death of formal speech, writing, poetry and music. While even the modestly educated sought an elevated tone when they put pen to paper before the 1960s, even the most well regarded writing since then has sought to capture spoken English on the page. Equally, in poetry, the highly personal, performative genre is the only form that could claim real liveliness. In both oral and written English,
talking is triumphing over speaking, spontaneity over craft.
Illustrated with an entertaining array of examples from both high and low culture, the trend that Mr. McWhorter documents is unmistakable. But it is less clear, to take the question of his subtitle, why we should, like care. As a linguist, he acknowledges that all varieties of human language, including non-standard ones like Black English, can be powerfully expressive-there exists no language or dialect in the world that cannot convey complex ideas .He is not arguing, as many do, that we can no longer think straight because we do not talk proper. Russians have a deep love for their own language and carry large chunks of memorized poetry in their heads, while Italian politicians tend to elaborate speech that would seem old-fashioned to most English-speakers. Mr. McWhorter acknowledges that formal language is not strictly necessary, and proposes no radical education reforms-he is really grieving over the loss of something beautiful more than useful. We now take our English “ on paper plates instead of china” . A shame, perhaps, but probably an inevitable one.
1. According to Mc Whorter, the decline of formal English
. is inevitable in radical education reforms.
. is but all too natural in language development.
. has caused the controversy over the counter-culture.
. brought about changes in public attitudes in the 1960s.
2. The word “ talking ” (Linge6, paragraph3) denotes
3. To which of the following statements would Mc Whorter most likely agree?
. Logical thinking is not necessarily related to the way we talk.
. Black English can be more expressive than standard English.
. Non-standard varieties of human language are just as entertaining.
. Of all the varieties, standard English Can best convey complex ideas.
4. The description of Russians' love of memorizing poetry shows the author's
. interest in their language.
. appreciation of their efforts.
. admiration for their memory.
. contempt for their old-fashionedness.
5. According to the last paragraph, “ paper plates” is to “ china ” as
. “ temporary ” is to “ permanent ” .
. “ radical ” is to “ conservative ” .
. “ functional ” is to “ artistic ” .
. “ humble ” is to “ noble ”
① In his latest book, Doing Our Own Thing. The Degradation of language and Music and why we should like, care, John McWhorter, a linguist and controversialist of mixed liberal and conservative views, sees the triumph of 1960s counter-culture as responsible for the decline of formal English.
该句子的主干是 John McWhorte sees the triumph of 1960s counter-culture as responsible for the decline。主语前的介词短语 in his latest book做状语, book 后有一个较长的书名充 当其同位语。主语和谓语之间为主语的同位语,对主语补充说明。
翻译:在他最近的书 《做我们自己的事:语言和音乐的退化, 以及为什么我们应该喜欢 或在意 ? 》中,这位学者认为 60年代反文化运动的胜利要对正式英语的退化负责。
② As a linguist, he acknowledges that all varieties of human language, including non-standard ones like Black English, can be powerfully expressive-there exists no language or dialect in the world that cannot convey complex ideas
该句子的主干是 he acknowledges that all varieties can be expressive,谓语 acknowledges 后面是 that 引导的宾语从句。 从句中主谓之间插入了介词短语 including non-standard ones like Black English。破折号后面分句对前面话语进行补充说明。
翻译:麦荷特认为各种各样的人类语言, 包括像黑人语言这样的非标准语言, 都具有强 大的表达力――世上没有传达不了复杂思想的语言或方言。
第四篇文章的专业性比较强, 讲的美国人由于随意性, 所以英语的语言也变得相当随意 的主旨, 对很多对语言学不敏感的同学是很难的, 因为专业性太强。 这篇文章总体同样属于 一个对比性的文章, 关键词围绕正式用语非正式用语这里面的变化。 开篇是在说什么导致英 语的衰败,不是那么正式了。 中间的部分是在讲语言的变化是不可阻挡的。结尾继续讲俄 国人对本国语言的最终是值得我们赞赏的。
36题 难度 0.319 区分度 .0.287。
作者认为是不可避免的在语言的发展中,而 A 是讲教育改革不可避免。
37题 难度 0.441 区分度 .0.308
原文反复出现的是语音的正式性和非正式性,所以这个题选 D 。
38题 难度 0.378 区分度 .0.352
问的是人物的观点, 所以要区分作者的观点, 美国人语言是衰败指的并不是逻辑思维也 是衰败的,所以选择 A 。
39题 难度 0.438 区分度 .0.261
作者提到俄国人喜欢背诗,作者在文章是赞赏的语气,称赞他们努力维护本国的语言。 40题 难度 0.543 区分度 .0.279
这个题也是一个类比题, 他说咱们经常纸碟和瓷器之间的关联, 纸盒子不漂亮可以盛饭, 瓷器在大餐聚会时被使用,讲究美食性。所以答案选 C ,是一种功能性和美食性的关联性和 关系性。
美国人已不再期待公众人物在演讲或写作中能运用技巧和文采来驾驭英语, 而公众人物 自己也不渴望这样。 语言学家麦荷特喜好争论, 他的观点混杂着自由派与保守派的看法。 在 他最近的书 《做我们自己的事:语言和音乐的退化, 以及为什么我们应该喜欢或在意 ? 》 中, 这位学者认为 60年代反文化运动的胜利要对正式英语的退化负责。
责备放纵的六十年代不是什么新鲜事, 但这次算不上是对教育衰落的又一场批判。 麦荷 特先生的学术专长在于语言史和语言演变。举例来说,他认为“ whom ”一词的逐渐消失是 自然的,并不比古英语中词格尾缀的消失更让人惋惜。
然而,“做自己的事”这一对事务真实性和个人性的崇高信条,已经导致了正式演讲、 写作、 诗歌及音乐的消亡。 在 20世纪 60年代以前, 仅受过一般教育的人在下笔时都会寻求一 种更高雅的强调 ; 而那之后, 即使是最受关注的文章也开始逮住口语就写在纸面上。 同样的, 对于诗歌来说, 非常个性化和富有表现力的创作风格成为了能够表达真实生动含义的唯一形 式。 无论作为口语还是书面语的英语, 随意言谈胜过雅致的言辞, 自我发挥也压过了精心准 备。
麦荷特显示先生从上层和下层文化中列举了一系列有趣的例子, 从而说明他记录的这种 趋势是确凿无误的。 但就书中副标题中的疑问:为什么我们应该、 喜欢或在意,答案却不够 明确。 作为语言学家, 麦荷特认为各种各样的人类语言, 包括像黑人语言这样的非标准语言, 都具有强大的表达力――世上没有传达不了复杂思想的语言或方言。 不像其他大多数人, 麦 荷特先生并不认为我们说话方式不再规范就会使我们不能够准确的思考。
俄罗斯人深爱自己的语言,并在脑海中存储了大量诗歌 ; 而意大利的政客们往往精心准备演 讲,即使这在大多数讲英语的人们眼里已经过时。麦荷特先生认为正式语言并非不可或缺, 也没有提出要进行彻底的教育改革――他其实只是为那些美好事务而不是实用品的消逝而
哀叹。 我们现在用“纸盘子”而非“瓷盘子”装着我们的英语大餐。 真是惭愧啊, 但很可能 已无法避免。
阅读 3(本题有 5个选项的,网上的找的 4个)
Massive changes in all of the world’ s deeply cherished sporting habits are underway. Whether it ’ s one of London’ s parks full of people playing softball, and Russians taking up rugby, or the Superbowl rivaling the British Football Cup Final as a televised spectator event in Britain, the patterns of players and spectators are changing beyond recognition. We are witnessing a globalization of our sporting culture.
That annual bicycle race, the Tour de France, much loved by the French is a good case in point. Just a few years back it was a strictly continental affair with France, Belgium and Holland, Spain and Italy taking part. But in recent years it has been dominated by Colombian mountain climbers, and American and Irishriders.
The people who really matter welcome the shift toward globalization. Peugeot, Michelin and Panasonic are multi-national corporations that want worldwide returns for the millions they invest in teams. So it does them literally a world of good to see this unofficial world championship become just that.
This is undoubtedly an economic-based revolution we are witnessing here,one made possible by communications technology, but made to happen because of marketing considerations. Sell the game and you can sell Cola or Budweiser as well The skilful way in which American football has been sold to Europe is a good example of how all sports will develop. The aim of course is not really to spread the sport for its own sake, but to increase the number of people interested in the major money-making events. The economics of the Superbowl are already astronomical. With seats at US $125, gate receipts alone were a staggering $ 10,000,000. The most important
statistic of the day, however, was the $ 100,000,000 in TV advertising fees. Imagine how much that becomes when the eyes of the world are watching.
So it came as a terrible shock, but not really as a surprise, to learn that some people are now suggesting that soccer change from being a game of two 45-minute halves, to one of four 25-minute quarters. The idea is unashamedly to capture more advertising revenue, without giving any thought for the integrity of asport which relies for its essence on the flowing nature of the action. Moreover, as sports expand into world markets, and as our choice of sports as consumers also grows, so we will demand to see them played at a higher and higher level. In boxing we have already seen numerous, dubious world title categories because people will not pay to see anything less than a “ World Tide ” fight, and this means that the title fights have to be held in different countries around the world!
1. Globalization of sporting culture means that ___.
A. more people are taking up sports.
B. traditional sports are getting popular.
C. many local sports are becoming international
D. foreigners are more interested in local sports
2. Which of the following is NOT related to the massive changes?
A. Good economic returns.
B. Revival of sports.
C. Communications technology.
D. Marketing strategies.
3.What is the author ’ s attitude towards the suggestion to change soccer into one of four 25-minute
A. Favourable. B. Unclear.
C. Reserved. D. Critical.
4. People want to see higher-level sports competitions mainly because___.
A. they become more professional than ever.
B. they regard sports as consumer goods.
C. there exist few world-class championships
D. sports events are exciting and stimulating
本文答案:1. C 2. B 3. D 4.B
短文大意:这篇文章介绍体育文化的全球化及商业化运作现象, 分析了其全球化、 商业化的 原因。
【详细解答】短文第二段说“ Just a few years back it was a strictly continental affair with France „ But in recent years it has been dominated by„”,由此可见体育文化的全球化使 许多国内的体育运动项目将走向世界。故选项 C 为正确答案。
【详细解答】短文第四段说“ This is undoubtedly an economic based revolution„ one made possible by communications technology , but made to happen because of marketing considerations .” 这里提到了“好的经济收益”, “通讯技术”及“市场策略的支持”, 没有提到“体育运动 的复兴” 故选项 B 为正确答案。
【参考译文】作者对于把英式足球改变为 4场 25分钟的比赛的态度如何?
【详细解答】短文倒数第二段最后一句说“ The idea is unashamedly to capture more advertising revenue , without giving any thought for the integrity of a sport which relies for its essence on the flowing nature of the action.”作者认为这做只是为了获得更多的广告收入,而破坏了
【详细解答】短文最后一段第一句有“ as sports expand into world markets , and as our choice of sports as consumers also grows , so we will demand to see them played at a higher and higher level .”据此知体育正扩展到全球市场,我们作为消费者对体育的选择也在增长,因此我们 要求看到更高水平的比赛。故选项 B 为正确答案。
What does the future hold for the problem of housing? A good deal depends, of course, on the meaning of “ future ” . If one is thinking in terms of science fiction and the space age, it is at least possible to assume that man will have solved such trivial and earthly problems as housing. Writers of science fiction, from H.G. Wells onwards, have had little to say on the subject. They have conveyed the suggestion that men will live in great comfort, with every conceivable apparatus to make life smooth, healthy and easy, if not happy. But they have not said what his house will be made of. Perhaps some new building material, as yet unimagined, will have been discovered or invented at least. One may be certain that bricks and mortar(泥灰,灰浆 ) will long have gone
But the problems of the next generation or two can more readily be imagined. Scientists have already pointed out that unless something is done either to restrict the world’ s rapid growth in population or to discover and develop new sources of food (or both), millions of people will be dying of starvation or at the best suffering from underfeeding before this century is out. But nobody has yet worked out any plan for housing these growing populations. Admittedly the worst situations will occur in the hottest parts of the world, where housing can be light structure or in backward areas where standards are traditionally low. But even the minimum shelter requires materials of some kind and in the teeming, bulging towns the low-standard “ housing ” of flattened petrol cans and dirty canvas is far more wasteful of ground space than can be tolerated. Since the war, Hong Kong has suffered the kind of crisis which is likely to arise in many other places during the next generation. Literally millions of refugees arrived to swell the already growing population and emergency steps had to be taken rapidly to prevent squalor(肮脏 )and disease and the spread crime. The city is tackling the situation energetically and enormous blocks of tenements(贫民住宅 )are rising at an astonishing aped. But Hong Kong is only one small part of what will certainly become a vast problem and not merely a housing problem, because when population grows at this rate there are accompanying problems of education, transport, hospital services, drainage, water supply and so on. Not every area may give the same resources as Hong Kong to draw upon and the search for quicker and cheaper methods of construction must never cease.
1.What is the author’ s opinion of housing problems in the first paragraph?
A.They may be completely solved at sometime in the future.
B.They are unimportant and easily dealt with.
C.They will not be solved until a new building material has been discovered.
D.They have been dealt with in specific detail in books describing the future.
2.The writer is sure that in the distant future ___.
A.bricks and mortar will be replaced by some other building material.
B.a new building material will have been invented.
C.bricks and mortar will not be used by people who want their house to be fashionable.
D.a new way of using bricks and mortar will have been discovered.
3.The writer believes that the biggest problem likely to confront the world before the end of the century ___.
A.is difficult to foresee.
B.will be how to feed the ever growing population.
C.will be how to provide enough houses in the hottest parts of the world.
D.is the question of finding enough ground space.
4.When the writer says that the worst situations will occur in the hottest parts of the world or in backward areas, he is referring to the fact that in these parts ___.
A.standards of building are low.
B.only minimum shelter will be possible.
C.there is not enough ground space.
D.the population growth will be the greatest.
5.Which of the following sentences best summarizes Paragraph 3?
A.Hong Kong has faced a serious crisis caused by millions of refugees.
B.Hong Kong has successfully dealt with the emergency caused by millions of refugees.
C.Hong Kong’ s crisis was not only a matter of housing but included a number of other problems of population growth.
D.Many parts of the world may have to face the kind of problems encountered by Hong Kong and may find it much harder to deal with them.
A A B D D
Of all the components of a good night's sleep, dreams seem to be least within our control. In dreams, a window opens into a world where logic is suspended and dead people speak A century ago, Freud formulated his revolutionary theory that dreams were the disguised shadows of our unconscious desires and fears, by the late 1970s, neurologists had switched to thinking of them as just "mental noise" — the random byproducts of the neural-repair work that goes on during sleep. Now researchers suspect that dreams are part of the mind's emotional thermostat, regulating moods while the brain is "off-line". And one leading authority says that these intensely powerful mental events can be not only harnessed but actually brought under conscious control, to help us sleep and feel better. "It's your dream," says Rosalind Cartwright, chair of psychology at Chicago's Medical Center. "If you don't like it, change it"
Evidence from brain imaging supports this view. The brain is as active during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep — when most vivid dreams occur — as it is when fully awake, says Dr. Eric Nofzinger at the University of Pittsburgh. But not all parts of the brain are equally involved, the limbic system (the "emotional brain" ) is especially active, while the prefronted cortex (the
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