中国矿业大学(北京)2013-2014年博士基础英语考试资料合集

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科技英语翻译

1. 当今社会,选择的观念无孔不入,种种选择会导致人们越发感到焦虑不安和力不从心。总有人向我们灌输这 样的理念:我们可以选择自己的生活方式,可以选择自己的身材,甚至可以选择子女的未来。我们因为这种无 所不能的虚假承诺而洋洋得意,同时却忘记了,自己做出的选择往往并不理智——要么受到别人选择(社会认 同)的影响,要么受到自己内心无意识动机的影响。

1.The ideology of choice is all-pervasive in today’s society, and has contributed to growing feelings of anxiety and inadequacy among consumers.We’re told that we can choose the type of life we live, the type of body we have, even the way our kids will turn out. But while we bask in the false promise of mastery, we forget that the choices we make are often irrational-either linked to other people’s choices (what is socially acceptable), or our own unconscious motives.

2. 鉴于甲方拥有合同产品的生产及销售所涉及的技术信息,包括设计、技术、工艺、配方、技能和其他资料的 专有权;鉴于乙方以生产、使用和销售合同产品为目的,希望获得使用上述协助的许可权利;鉴于乙方希望使 用甲方所有的下述商标;双方兹就下列内容达成一致:

2. Whereas Party A possesses proprietary technical information including designs, techniques, workmanship, formulas, skills and other data useful in the manufacture and marketing of certain products; and whereas Party B desires to acquire the right and licence to use the above-mentioned technical assistance for the purpose of manufacturing, using and selling such products; and whereas Party B desires to use the following trademarks owned by Party A. Now Therefore, the parties hereby agree as follows:

3. 版权是一种无形资产。正如其字面所示,它所拥有的是一种权利。这种权利包括两个方面,即复制权和对复 制权的使用控制。版权是对作品创造者实行的一种法律保护。最初仅限于对书籍方面,而今已扩大到对各种杂 志、报纸、地图、戏剧、电影、电视节目、电脑软件、绘画、图片、雕塑、音乐作品、舞蹈动作设计等类作品 的保护。实质上,版权保护的是知识或艺术财产。

版权这种财产与众不同,因为它旨在为公众所利用,为公众所享受。如果一个读者买一本版权受保护的书,这 本书就归其所有。但是如果他将此书复制或散发,那便属违法,因为这种权利属出版商、作者或拥有其版权的 人所有。

3. Copyright is an intangible form of property. What is owned, as the word suggests, is a right. This right has two aspects-the right to copy and the right to control copying. Copyright is a legal protection extended to those who produce creative works. Originally only for books, copyright now extends to magazines, newspapers, maps, plays, motion pictures, television programs, computer program software, paintings, photographs, sculpture, musical compositions, choreographed dances, and similar works. Essentially a copyright protects an intellectual or artistic property.

This type of property is unusual because it is normally intended for public use or enjoyment. If an individual buys a copyrighted book, it belongs to him as an object. But making copies of it to sell or give away is illegal. This right belongs to the publisher, author, or whoever holds the copyright.

4. 承租人同意将所租建筑保持良好状态, 并不得任其损坏。 如果承租人对出租房屋作任何调整或增添任何设施, 事先必须征得出租人的书面同意。房内任何增添和装修过的设施都成为出租人的财产,而且承租人不得以此向 出租人提出补偿要求。如果发生火灾,本租赁合同立即终止。

4.The Lessee agrees to maintain the leased building in good condition and shall not allow it to further deteriorate. Any modifications or additions carried out on the leased building by the Lessee may be done only with the Lessor's prior written permission. Any new structure resulting from modification, addition or repair to the leased building becomes the property of the Lessor, and the Lessee cannot claim any damages. This lease contract is terminated should the

leased building be subject to a fire disaster.

5. 阐述了 2000年以来,中国经济和能源快速增长的态势,以及能源消费构成变化情况和石油消费形式,探讨 了 2050年前几种不同情境下的中国经济增长前景、能源消费增长趋势、能源消费构成变化趋势和石油需求总 量。

5.This paperillustrates the rapid growth of china’s economy and energy consumption, the change of energy consumption structure and the situation of oil consumption since 2000. It also discussed the prospect of china's economic growth,the increasing trend of energy consumption, the changing trend of energy consumption structure and the total demand of oil in different situations before 2050.

6. 加速发展常规天然气、页岩气、煤层气等气体能源,即能缓解我国面临的能源安全、环境保护和减排等多重 压力,又能培育新的经济增长点。为此应提升气体能源在我国能源战略中的地位,加快能源领域的市场改革, 建立完善准入和矿业权管理制度,放宽气体能源的行业标准,改革能源价格形成机制,并加大对页岩气开采等 技术开发的支持,从而改变我国能源供应和消费的结构,支持可持续发展和生态文明建设。

The accelerating development of gas energy such as natural gas, shale gas and coalbed methane can relieve pressures from energy security, environmental protection and emission reduction as well as create new economic growth points.Therefore, methods such as promoting the position of gas energy in energy strategy, accelerating the market reform in energy field, establishing and perfecting themanagement system of access and mining right, relaxing the industry standard of gas energy, reforming energy price forming mechanism and increasing the support of key shale gas extraction technologies should be taken to change the structure of energy supply and consumption in our country and support the sustainable development and ecological civilization construction.

7. 本刊只接受全部用英文写成的稿件。来稿在 5000字左右为宜。论文必须另页附 200字以内的中文摘要、 100词以内英文摘要和不少于 3个的主题词。正文格式应符合以下要求:1、英文 12磅字体; 2、双倍行距; 3、左 右两边空白各不少于 3.5厘米; 4、单面打印; 5、段落第一行行首缩进四个字符; 6、加入页码; 7、文内引语 和参考书目采用美国心理学会(APA )的论文格式。

7. This journal only accepts Englishpapers. Keep the paper about 5000 words, with an abstract of 200 words in Chinese and 100 words in English with at least 3 keywords in a separate page. The following is the format of the text submitted:

1. Use font size 12 in English;

2. Write on double-space;

3. Leave margins at least 3.5 cm on the right and left sides;

4. Type on only one side of the paper.

5. Indent the first line of every new paragraph with 4 spaces;

6. Number the paper with the pages.

7. Adopt the format of APA for the quotations and references.

课后题答案

Unit 2(P19)

1. 对于许多人来说, 在当今计算机时代还需要由人来作翻译似乎不合情理。 既然现代计算机能装入词典和语法, 为什么不让计算机来作翻译呢 ? 计算机是可以作一些非常简单的语际转换工作,条件是事前和事后都要进行大 量的编辑。但是无论广告小册子还是抒情诗都绝不可能归结为计算机所要求的那种逻辑。计算机打印出来的译 文常常是可以看懂的——如果有关人员早就知道原文的大概。但是机器翻译出来的东西,其语言形式通常是不 自然的,而且有时候简直令人不可思议。再者,仅仅修改程序或者增加规则也不会使译文有真正的改观。人的 大脑不仅具有数字功能和模拟功能,而且还有内存价值系统,这个系统在语言成分分析上比起计算机来有着不 可估量的优势。 对于任何文体引人入胜、 语义复杂的文本——包括大多数值得在另一种语言中表达出来的东西,

非得由人来进行翻译不可。

2.Translation means the conversion of an expression into another language. To say plainly it is an art to reproduce the exact idea of the author by means of a language different from the original. From the above definition of translation we know that the original thought of the expression must be kept as exactly as possible. Nothing should be added to or taken away from the original work. The duty of the translator is simply to change the vocabulary not the thought. In translation therefore, there are two essential elements: accuracy and expressiveness.

Accuracy is the first requisite of translation. The translator must stick to the author's idea. Words selected and sentences constructed must be of such nature as will convey the exact original thought. Expressiveness is to make the translation readily understood. In other words, the translator must express his author's idea as clearly and as forcibly as he can by the medium he employs. Accuracy is to make the thought definite and exact; while expressiveness is to make the translation vivid and attractive.

Unit 3(P25)

19. 独立宣言包括三个部分:第一部分阐明政治哲学—民主与自由哲学, 内容深刻动人; 第二部分列举若干具体 的不平事例,以证明乔治三世破坏了美国的自由;第三部分宣布独立,并宣誓支持该项政策。

20. 接到来函后,不到十分钟,我骑马动身了。到达坎特布里,换乘四轮马车进镇,但一场雨把我浑身淋湿,患 了重感冒,一时不能痊愈。大约中午到达财务委员会,要做的第一件事,就是刮脸换衣。不久,打听到在委员 会前树碑的内情。可是我尚未接到通知,不过从送信者口里获悉翌日上午会有通知的。我一回到小旅馆就吃了 晚饭,然后就上床睡觉。第 2天一早,吃过早饭,换好衣服,我就及时出发去打听有关纪念碑的事情。一得到 消息,我就坐上马车,在 3点之前回到了坎特布里。没给你带来什么,再见吧。

Unit 11(P94)

作为一种重要的知识储备手段,各类文献已成为宝贵的资源宝藏,大大促进了人类社会的进步。

专业文献一向被认为是全世界的“无形财产”。因为一方面它们是对前人的经验或研究成果的总结、概括和发 展;另一方面,又是人类长期积累、世代相传的遗产。因此,从这种意义上讲,一切文献都是前人的研究发现 和学术成就的宝贵记载,是人类文明的结晶。

Unit 12(P105)

1.版权是一种合法权力,旨在保护创造性作品在未得到允许的情况下不得加以复制、演出、展出或传播。版 权拥有者具有这样一些专有权:复制版权受保护的作品;根据版权保护的作品制作其他作品将保护作品的拷贝 出售、出租或借给公众使用在公众场合演出以及公开展出版权受保护的作品。版权拥有者的以上种种基本专有 权也有例外的情况,这往往要根据作品的种类以及他人怎样使用作品而定。

版权法中“作品”一词指的是以固定形式存在于有形媒介的原作者的创作物。这样,能受版权保护的作品就包 括文学作品、音乐作品、戏剧选集、舞蹈、照片、绘画、雕刻、图形、广播、地图、电影、电台和电视节目、 录音以及计算机软件程序等。

版权不保护某种想法或概念, 只对作者表达想法或概念的方法加以保护。 例如, 要是某科学家发表了一篇文章, 阐述生产某种药品的新的制作过程,那么版权可以阻止他人抄袭该文章,但不能制止任何人用上述过程配备药 品。要想保护上述制作过程,该科学家就必须获得专利。

Unit 13(P116)

3. 对于因履行本合同所发生的一切争议,本合同双方应友好协商解决,如协商无法解决争议,则应将争议提交 中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会(北京),依据仲裁规则仲裁。仲裁裁决是终局性的,对双方都有约束力。仲裁 费用应由败诉方承担,但仲裁委员会另有裁定的除外。

4. If this Agreement is terminated for any reason whatsoever, all such drawings, transparencies, specifications, and any other manufacturing or engineering information as are supplied by Party A, including all the copies thereof, shall be returned to Party A, and Party B shall cease to manufacture the said Licensed Products or Components, or parts of the Licensed Products.

Unit 14(P120)

以上定义中提到的指定的管理计划通常称为“管理建议”。一般来说,管理建议向预期的客户准准确确地解释 整个项目将如何进行管理,以及管理人员的姓名等,并为完成该项目提出一个时间进度表。管理建议的重要目 的之一是让客户相信,该项工作在每个阶段都将由能胜任的人员来完成,这就是说,如果是“硬件”项目,就 要从原型设计研究到整个制造阶段; 如果是 “软件” 项目, 则要从初始的探索性研究到最终解决方案 (“软件”

一词在此上下文中指的是一份能解决某一基本问题或若干问题的可行性报告)。此外,建议中有关管理的部分 应当在质量和可靠性问题上分清职责,措辞要尽量清晰果断,便于客户与供应商交换意见。

2013-2014科技英语作业

汉译英部分(作业)

对农民工的管理和服务要到位

雇工要给工钱,古今皆然,中外同理。但是,就在国务院已经下发了用工单位不得以任何名目拖欠和克扣 农民工工资的通知后,有些急于拿到工钱返乡过春节的农民工仍拿不到钱。忙碌了一年的血汗钱,农民工要把 每个前掰成两瓣儿花的:盖新房、娶媳妇、备耕买种子、化肥、子女来年的学费都指望着它呢。

拿不到工钱,已经够让农民工烦心的了,但闹心的事远不止这一件。诸如受了工伤,老板不予治疗,欲诉 诸法律,有打不起官司;受了老板或包工头的侮辱,想讨个说法却又担心丢了饭碗只好忍气吞声;劳动环境恶 劣,劳动强度超负荷,有毒有害物质和气体严重戕害身体,却投告无门;各种名目的管理费多如牛毛,是个穿 制服的就敢向农民工收费,不交就可能被驱逐出城。凡此种种,都发出了一个讯号:各地政府对农民工的管理 和服务要尽早到位,不然就有可能出乱子甚至是大乱子。

Do a good job in administering and serving laborers from the countryside

You have to pay the people you hire. There is no exception to this in modern or ancient times, athome or abroad. However, some of the hired laborers haven’ t got their pay though they are anxious to go home for the spring Festival despite the fact that the State Council has issued a notice forbidding employers dock laborers’ wages in whatever name. the laborers plan to spend their money sparingly as so many things hang on the money earned with their blood and sweat: to build new houses, to get married, to buy seeds, chemical fertilizer, and pesticides to get ready for the spring plough, and to pay for their children’s education of the next year.

It was already bothering them that they fail to get the money due to them. But there are far more troubles. For example, their bosses refuse to pay for their medical treatment when some of the laborers get injured during work, and they simply cannot afford to launch any lawsuit even if they want to. Sometimes they really want to seek justice when they are bullied by the boss or the foreman, but very often they have to swallow it lest they should lose their jobs. They suffer from adverse working environment, unbearable labor intensity, and toxic and harmful material and gases which seriously affecting their health, but there is no place where they can complain about these. Miscellaneous fees are imposed on them in various names and excuses-anyone wearing a uniform or even an armband can levy fees from them and refusal may result in the laborers’ being driven out of the city. All these are sending out warnings to us: there will be troubles, even big troubles unless governments at different levels do a good job in administering and serving laborers from the countryside.

近几年来,国债资金重点用于水利、交通、通信、能源、环保等方面的建设,取得了重大成效。在基础设 施落后的状况已有改变的情况下,产业结构的优化升级应成为经济发展的首要任务。要用现代技术改造传统产 业,加快发展高新技术产业,改变第三产业发展明显滞后的状况。能不能完成这一阶段性任务,关系到加入世 贸组织后我国国际竞争力的提高,关系到经济的持续快速健康发展和第三步战略目标的实现。

实现结构调整的目标,技术是最大的制约因素。许多符合产业升级要求的好的建设项目,由于缺乏技术, 虽然有资金也无法进行。所以,打破技术这一瓶颈制约,是实现产业升级目标的关键。当前,必须加大对科研 开发的投入,继续引进国外的先进技术和装备,加强消防、吸收和创新。

Great results have been achieved in recent years through giving priority in the allocation of funds gathered through governmental bonds to the construction of water conservancy , transportation, communication , industries of energy resources ,and environmental protection. Now the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure have become the most important task as the backward infrastructure has been remarkably improved. We should reform traditional industries by adapting modern techniques, speeding up industries with advanced new techniques, so as to change the situation that the tertiary industry lags behind. The successful fulfillment of this task has a direct bearing on whether

China can raise her international competitiveness, maintain the continuous , rapid and healthy development of her national economy, and realize the targets set ird for her third strategic plan.

The greatest restrictive factor in achieving the target of this industrial structural readjustment is technology. Many fine projects cannot be upgraded because of lack of technique , though they meet the demands for upgrading and there is no lack of funds. Therefore, it has become a key to the realization of such upgrading to break through this technical bottleneck. At present, it is imperative to put in more in scientific research, continue to introduce in advanced foreign techniques and equipment, and do a better job in digesting and absorption of such techniques and at the same time blaze new trails.

英译汉部分(作业)

Until recently, scientists knew little about life in the deep sea, nor had they reason to believe that it was being threatened. Now, with the benefit of technology that allows for deeper exploration, researchers have uncovered a remarkable array of species inhabiting the ocean floor at depths of more than 660 feet, or about 200 meters. At the same time, however, technology has also enabled fishermen to reach far deeper than ever before, into areas where bottom trawls can destroy in minutes what has taken nature hundreds and in some cases thousands of years to build.

Many of the world's coral species, for example, are found at depths of more than 200 meters. It is also estimated that roughly half of the world's highest seamounts — areas that rise from the ocean floor and are particularly rich in marine life — are also found in the deep ocean.

These deep sea ecosystems provide shelter, spawning and breeding areas for fish and other creatures, as well as protection from strong currents and predators. Moreover, they are believed to harbor some of the most extensive reservoirs of life on earth, with estimates ranging from 500,000 to 100 million species inhabiting these largely unexplored and highly fragile ecosystems.

Yet just as we are beginning to recognize the tremendous diversity of life in these areas, along with the potential benefits newly found species may hold for human society in the form of potential food products and new medicines, they are at risk of being lost forever. With enhanced ability both to identify where these species-rich areas are located and to trawl in deeper water than before, commercial fishing vessels are now beginning to reach down with nets the size of football fields, catching everything in their path while simultaneously crushing fragile corals and breaking up the delicate structure of reefs and seamounts that provide critical habitat to the countless species of fish and other marine life that inhabit the deep ocean floor.

Because deep sea bottom trawling is a recent phenomenon, the damage that has been done is still limited. If steps are taken quickly to prevent this kind of destructive activity from occurring on the high seas, the benefits both to the marine environment and to future generations are incalculable. And they far outweigh the short-term costs to the fishing industry.

前不久,科学家们对深海生物还知之甚少,也不太相信它们正受到威胁。现在,随着深海探测技术的发展,研 究人员发现 660多英尺,即 200米深的海底生存着大量多种多样的物种。但与此同时,捕鱼人员也可以依靠 技术到达比以前更深的地方,进行海底拖网捕捞,而此种深海捕捞则可在几分钟内就把大自然几百年乃至几千 年的积累毁灭。

例如,世界上的许多种珊瑚在二百多米深的海底才能找到。此外,据估计世界上一些最高的海底山约有一半位 于深海海底。这些海底隆起的地方,海洋生物特别丰富。

这些深海生态系统为鱼类和其它生物提供生存、 产卵、 繁殖的场所, 从而保护它们免遭大海流和猎食者的侵袭。 此外,据信这些深海生态系统蕴藏着世界上最丰富的生命宝库,估计有五十万至一亿种生物生活在这些大体上 未经勘探并且极脆弱的生态系统中。

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