中国农业科学院2005年博士研究生入学考试英语试题(附答案解析)

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中国农业科学院 2005年博士研究生入学考试英语试题

(考试时间 3小时 满分 100分 )

Ⅰ . Vocabulary Part A.

Directions: Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence and mark the corresponding letter with a singl e bar across the square bracket on the ANSWER SHEET.

1. The scene is so beautiful that it my power of description. A. transports B. transfers C. transcends D. transforms

2. The schoolmaster the girl’s bravery in his opening speech. A. applauded B. enhanced C. elevated D. clapped

3. The meaning of “yellow” is a color, but it can also mean “cowardly.” A. positive B. negative C. underlying D. literal

4. Many people think that the standards of public have declined. A. morality B. rightness C . awareness D. mentality

5. People were surprised to find that he had the ability to everything he was involved in. A. precede B. dominate C. pervade D. denominate

6. The fact that they reacted so differently was a reflection of their different . A. performances B. personalities C. qualities D. debut

7. This medicine will the pain in the stomach.

A. ascertain B. agitate C. alleviate D. allocate

8. The apartment was as $50,000 and its owner decided to sell it. A. automated B. assessed C asserted D. avenged

9. The minister all his officials pay the tax.

A. bids B. blesses C. barks D. baffles

10. When a person dies, his debts must be paid before his can be distributed. A. paradoxes B. legacies C. platitudes D. analogies

Part B.

Directions: In each of the following sentences there is one word or phrase

underlined. Below the sentence are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the one that is clo sest in meaning to the underlined part. Mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square bracket on the ANSWER SHEET.

11. Tourists flock from the remotest places to see the capital’s sights. A. invade B. troop C. p rompt D. gather

12. He has told so many lies that we can no longer place any reliance on what he says. A. belief B. trust C. conviction D. dependence.

13. Oil can change a society more drastically than anyone could ever have imagined. A. grossly B. severely C. rapidly D. radically

14. In times of economic difficulty, governmental budgets for education are often slashed before any others.

A. shifted B. cut C. checked D. donated

15. Modern printing equipment quickly turns out duplicate copies of textual and pictorial matter. A. identical B. double C. illustrated D. legible

16. With her youngest child having left home, she felt a pressing need to fill her time. A. tense

B. thorough C. urgent D. small

17. The role of the performing artist is to interpret, not alter, the notes on a printed sheet of musi c.

A. omit B. reproduce C. compose D. change.

18. Aircraft and rocket can be used to collect radioactive debris, while high-altitude satellites carr y detectors for gamma rays and other emissions. A. diffusion B. remains C. glitter transfe r

19. Although worn out by years of service to his country, Washington accepted the presidency of the United States.

A. favored B. honored C. exhausted D. weakened

20. Between French friends, who have chosen each other for congeniality of their point of view, li vely disagreement and sharpness of arguments are the breath of life. A. coexistence B. coincide nce C. correlation D. compatibility

Ⅱ . Cloze

Directions: Read the following passage. Choose the best word for each numbered blank and mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square bracket on the ANSWER SHEET. We do not know when man first began to use salt, but we do know that it has been used in many different ways throughout history. (21) evidence shows, for example, that people who lived o ver three thousand years ago ate (22) fish. Stealing salt was considered a major crime at cert ain times in history. In the

eighteenth century, for instance, if a person was (23) “stealing salt”, he could be put in prison . History reveals that about ten thousand people were put in prison during that century (24) stealing salt.

In the modern world salt has many uses (25) the dining table. It is used in making glass and ai rplane parts, in the (26) of crops and in killing weeds. It is also used to make water soft, to m elt ice on roads and highways, to make soap, and to (27) colors in cloth.

Salt can be obtained in various ways, besides being taken from mines underground. Evaporation o f salt water from the ocean or from salt water lakes or small seas is one of the (28) commo n processes for manufacturing salt. In Australia, it can even be taken from a “salt bush”. Yet, (29) it is obtained, salt will continue to play an important (30) in the lives of men and women everywhere.

21. A. Ancient B. Historic C. Historical D. Old 22. A. salt B. salted C. salting D. salty 23. A. arrested B. caught C. got D. seized 24. A. as B. by C. for D. through 25. A. besides B. beyond C. except D. over

26. A. bearing B. developing C. growing D. training 27. A. fasten B. fix C. preserve D. tie 28. A. little B. many C. much D. more

29. A. however B. whatever C. whenever D. wherever 30. A. duty B. function C. responsibility D. role

Ⅲ . Reading Comprehension

Part A.

Directions: There are three reading passages in this part. Each passage is

followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices m arked A, B, C, and D. You should decide on the best choice.

Passage One

(1) Poultry farmers need to adopt strict hygiene standards to curb Asia\'s deadly bird flu virus, a t op Vietnamese official said on the eve of an international conference Wednesday on fighting the disease.

(2) A dozen Vietnamese have died of bird flu since Dec. 30, raising concerns that the disease coul d be re-emerging after an outbreak last year spread to 10 Asian countries, forcing the slaughter of more than 100 million birds.

(3) “It \'s difficult to change their habit but we need to educate them," Bui Quang Anh, head of th e Department for Animal Health, said Tuesday. "Once they understand and follow all the instructi ons, we can prevent the virus from spreading.”

(4) Big commercial farms learned from the first outbreak and applied preventive measures, such a s strict hygiene standards and regular disinfection, Anh said. The most recent outbreak was only r eported in small farms, which failed to apply preventive measures, he said.

(5) New regulations should include separating ducks from chickens, requiring ducks to be raised i n cages and improving hygiene measures, Anh said. Ducks should not roam freely in rice fields as they do now in the southern Mekong Delta, he added. (6) The conference will be looking at a vari ety of issues, including mass vaccinations, flu research, farm hygiene, animal husbandry practices and improving coordination between animal health and human health agencies.

(7) The virus, which in the last year has killed 46 people — including 32 from Vietnam and 12 fro m Thailand — has yet to mutate into a form that can be

transmitted between humans. But scientists say it may mutate to a human form that could beco me as deadly as the ones that killed millions during three influenza pandemics of the 20th centur y.

31. The subject of the international conference mentioned in the first paragraph is about A. battling the SARS B. epidemic disease control C. fighting the avian flu D. public health

32. According to the passage, which of the following statement is true? A. Bird flu was first found in Vietnam.

B. Big commercial farms have taken preventive measures to curb bird flu. C. Bui Quang Anh believ es that it is impossible to prevent the bird flu. D. 1, 000 birds were killed during the last year outb reak of bird flu.

33. According to the passage, which of the following measures are NOT effective in fighting agains t the bird flu?

A. to adopt strict hygiene standards in poultry farms. B. to carry out regular disinfection

C. to raise ducks and chickens separately

D. to stop poultry trade

34. We can infer from the last paragraph that

A. currently the bird flu virus cannot be transmitted between humans B. the bird flu virus is easy t o mutate.

C. the bird flu has killed millions of people

D. the bird flu is more deadly than common influenza.

35. The best title for the passage is . A. Bird Flu: A Deadly Disease

B. What Can We Learn from the Bird Flu

C. Vietnam: the Biggest Victim of the Bird Flu D. Official Urges Farmers to Curb Bird Flu Passage T

(1) The sources of anti-Christian feeling were many and complex. On the more intangible side, th ere was a general pique against the unwanted intrusion of the Western countries; there was an u nderstandable tendency to seek an external

scapegoat for internal disorders only tangentially attributable to the West and perhaps most imp ortant, there was a virile tradition of ethnocentricism, vented long before against Indian Buddhis m, which since the seventeenth century, focused on Western Christianity. Accordingly, even befor e the missionary movement really got under way in the mid-nineteenth century, it was already at a disadvantage. After 1860, as missionary activity in the hinterland expanded, it quickly became a pparent that in

addition to the intangibles, numerous tangible grounds for Chinese hostility abounded. (2) In part , the very presence of the missionary evoked attack, they were, after all, the first foreigners to lea ve the treaty ports and venture into the interior, and for a long time they were virtually the only f oreigners whose quotidian labors carried them to the farthest reaches the Chinese empire. For m any of the indigenous population,

therefore, the missionary stood as a uniquely visible symbol against which opposition to foreign i ntrusion could e vented. In part too, the missionary was attacked because the manner in which h e made his presence felt after 1860 seemed almost calculated to offend. By indignantly waging ba ttle against the notion that China was the sole fountainhead of civilization and, more particularly, by his assault on many facets of Chinese culture, the missionary directly undermined the cultural hegemony of the gentry class. Also, in countless ways, he posed a threat to the gentry’s traditiona l monopoly of social leadership. Missionaries, particularly Catholics, frequently, assumed the garb of the Confucian literati. They were the only persons at the local level, aside from the gentry who were permitted to communicate with the authorities as social equals, and they enjoyed an extrat erritorial status in the interior that gave them greater immunity to Chinese law than had ever bee n possessed by the gentry. (3) Although it was the avowed policy of the Chinese government after 1860 that the new treaties were to be strictly adhered to, in practice implementation depended on the wholehearted accord provincial authorities. There is abundant evidence that cooperation was dilatory. At the root of this lay the interactive nature of ruler and ruled.

(4) In a severely understaffed bureaucracy that ruled as much by suasion as by might, the official, almost always a stranger in the locality of his service, depended on the active cooperation of the l ocal gentry class. Energetic attempts to implement treaty provisions concerning missionary activit ies, in direct defiance of gentry sentiment, ran the risk of alienating this class and destroying futur e effectiveness.

36. In a vague way, anti-Christian feeling stemmed from .

A. the mere presence of invaders B. a generalized unfocused feeling C. the introduction to the W est D. none of the above

37. The author would agree that .

A. many problems in China came from internal disorders due to Western influence. B. many probl ems in China came from China itself and were unrelated to the West C. scapegoats perform a nec essary function and there should be more of them D. all of the above are true.

38. With which of the following statements would the author agree? A. Ethnocentricism is a manl y tradition.

B. The disdain toward Christianity was prefigured by a disdain toward Buddhism. C. Although Chri stianity was not well received in China, Buddhism was. D. The author would agree with A and C. 39. Missionaries .

A. often dressed the same way as Chinese scholars did

B. were free of the legal constraints that bound the local indigenous population C. had greater ac cess to authority than Chinese peasants D. may be described by all of the above

40. Provincial authorities .

A. cooperated fully with the central government’s policy B. were alive to local feelings

C. were obliged to determine whether local sentiment tolerated implementation D. may be descri bed by B and C.

Passage Three

(1) The natural environment has, of course, always conditioned technology. For example, the nature of an environment (polar, desert, jungle) engenders the

development of technologies appropriate to that environment to enable man to adapt successfull y to it. Further, emerging scarcity of some technological resource may

ignite a research for, and gradual transition to, a new technology using resources present in the e nvironment in greater abundance, as, for example, in the case of the gradual change from wood-based to coal-based technology in England that began in Elizabeth times and stretched until the e nd of the eighteenth century.

(2) In modern Western society, environment has begun to condition technology in new ways, although admittedly more indirectly. The safety and quality of the environment and public percep tions of it have begun to translate into presidential politics and congressional mandates to regulat ory agencies to protect or enhance environmental quality or safety, occasionally even at the cost of some perturbation of the tech-economic status-quo. In France, Italy, and recently the United St ates, political parties have been formed, organized around a complex of technology/ environment issues. In general, in the last fifteen years, the gradual development of broad-based environment al awareness, the lobbying and litigious activities of environmental interest groups, and guideline s issued and reinforced by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) in response to congression al mandates have markedly increased the heed paid to the environment by many corporations in going about their technology activities. Both research an development priorities and capital inves tment programs of the corporations have been affected by this.

41. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

A. Environment enables man to adapt successfully to new technology. B. Technologies enable ma n to adapt successfully to his environment.

C. The development of the technologies depends solely on the natural environment. D. Lack of technologies to cope with the environment is caused by lack of natural resources.

42. We can infer from the article that in the 1800s England was probably rich in . A. wood resou rces B. technological resources C. natural resources D. coal resource

43. in modern Western society, the environmental problem has . A. received great attention fo rm the governments

B. caused some serious disorders in technology and economy Affected modern technologies mor e directly than before.

D. become more important but received less and less attention

44. The underlined word “heed” in the last but one sentence of the passage means . A. lawsuit B. interest C. attention D. expense

45. What is the best topic for the passage? A. What can nature contribute to technology? B. Environment can sometimes block the progress of technology. C. Technologies of all kinds shou ld serve the natural environment.

D. Environment deserves the most attention in the development of technology.

Part B

Directions: After you have read the following passage, write out a summary in English whit about 70 to 90 words. Put your summary on the ANSWER SHEET.

What is Society?

Society is a group of human beings, held together by agreement for reasons that are mutually be neficial to the individual members. Societies operate as a whole, as a collective body, chiefly in w ays that look out for the highest common good of all. Members have specific roles and responsibi lities within the society. One of the best direct analogies is with the human body itself. The cells a re all alive, independently, yet they group together and establish roles, responsibilities, and relati onships that allow a greater whole to exist that is more than just the sum of the parts. The cells g ain from the specific roles they play because they are allowed to be what they are more effectivel y. Further, they are given a limited awareness of the whole that their efforts aid in creating. Similarly, when individual human beings group together to form societies, an

organization is created in which the members are the cells. Subgroups of the members may form organs through which higher level functions can then manifest. If the relationships are loose, the body created has limited functionality over that of any individual member because there is little s ynergy. When the relationships are close and founded on a basis of love, the body thus created h as significant functionality over that of the individuals. When the group is small, few organs can b e created so there is limited complexity or functionality. When the group is large, many organs ca n be created, resulting in highly increased complexity and functionality.

Countries, regions, states cities, and neighborhoods could all be considered to be societies as coul d teams, groups, and any other organizations of people. For our purposes here, the most importa nt society is The United States of America since it is the one established to set up the New Order f or the Ages, Novus Ordo Seclorum. Society is more than the government, however. It also includ es all the economic and social infrastructure necessary to provide people with what they need. Ⅳ . Translation

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