2014年四川大学博士生英语入学考试真题(附答案)

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川大考博英语 2014年真题

I . Reading Comprehension (30%; one mark each)

Directions: Read the following six passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing [A], [B], [C], or [D]. Write your answers on the Answer Sheet.

Passage One

In general, our society is becoming one of giant enterprises directed by a

and by psychologists and “huma n-relations” experts; yet all this oiling does not alter the fact that man has become powerless, that he is bored with it. In fact, the blue and the white-collar workers have become economic puppets who dance to the tune of automated machines and bureaucratic management.

The worker and employee are anxious, not only because they might find themselves out of a job; they are anxious also because they are unable to acquire any real satisfaction of interesting life. They live and die without ever having confronted the fundamental realities of human existence as emotionally and intellectually independent and productive human beings.

Those higher up on the social ladder are no less anxious. Their lives are no less empty than those of their subordinates. They are even more insecure in some respects. They are in a highly competitive race. To be promoted or to fall behind is not a matter of salary but even more a matter of self-respect. When they apply for their first job, they are tested for intelligence as well as for the right mixture of submissiveness and independence. From the moment on they are tested again and again-by the psychologists, for whom testing is a big business, and by their superiors, who judge their behavior, sociability, capacity to get along, etc. This constant need to prove that one is as good as or better than one’s fellow-competitor creates constant anxiety and stress, the very causes of unhappiness and illness.

Am I suggesting that we should return to the preindustrial mode of production or to nineteenth-century “free enterprise” capitalism? Certainly not. Problems the never solved by returning to a stage which one has already outgrown. I suggest transforming our social system form, a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maxima, production and consumption are ends in themselves, into a humanist industrialism in which man and full

development of his potentialities-those of all love and of reason-are the aims of social arrangements. Production and consumption should serve only as means to this end and should be prevented from ruling man.

1. By “a well-oiled cog in the machinery” the author intends to deliver the idea that man is ____.

[A] a necessary part of the society though each individual’s function is negligible

[B] working in complete harmony with the rest of the society

[C] an unimportant part in comparison with the rest of the society

[D] a humble component of the society, especially when working smoothly

2. The real cause of the anxiety of the workers and employees is that ____.

[A] they are likely to lose their jobs

[B] they have no genuine satisfaction or interest in life

[C] they are faced with the fundamental realities of human existence

[D] they are deprived of their individuality and independence

3. From the passage we can conclude that real happiness of life belongs to those ____. [A] who are at the bottom of the society

[B] who are higher up in their social status

[C] who prove better than their fellow-competitors

[D] who could dip fir away from this competitive world

4. To solve the present social problems the author puts forward a suggestion that we should ____.

[A] resort to the production mode of our ancestors

[B] offer higher wages to the workers and employees

[C] enable man to fully develop his potentialities

[D] take the fundamental realities for granted

5. The author’s attitude towards industrialism might best be summarized as one of ____. [A] approval [B] dissatisfaction

[C] suspicion [D] susceptibility

Passage Two

The government-run command post in Tunis is staffed around the clock by military personnel, meteorologists and civilians. On the wall are maps, crisscrossed with brightly colors arrows that painstakingly track the fearsome path of the enemy.

What kind of invader gives rise to such high-level monitoring? Not man, not beast, but the lowly desert locust(蝗虫) . In recent moths, billions of the 3-inch-long winged warriors

have descended on Algeria, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia, blackening the sky and eating up crops and vegetation. The insect invasion, the worst in 30 years, is already creating great destruction in the Middle East and is now treating southern Europe. The current crisis began in late 1985 near the Red Sea. Unusually rainy weather moistened the sands of the Sudan, making them ideal breeding grounds for the locust, which lays its eggs in the earth. The insect onslaught threatens to create yet another African famine. Each locust can eat its weight (not quite a tenth of an ounce) in vegetation every 24 hours. A good-size swarm of 50 billion insects eats up 100,000 tons of grass, trees and crops in a single night.

All $150 million may be needed this year. The U.S. has provided two spraying planes and about 50,000 gal. of pesticide. The European Community has donated $3.8 million in aid and the Soviet Union, Canada, Japan and China have provided chemical-spraying aircraft to help wipe out the pests. But relief efforts are hampered by the relative mildness of approved pesticides, which quickly lose their deadly punch and require frequent replications. The most effective locust killer Dieldrin has been linked to cancer and is banned by many Western countries and some of the affected African nations. More than 5 million acres have been dusted with locust-killing chemicals; another 5 million will be treated by the end of June.

On May 30, representatives of Tunisia, Algeria, Libya, Morocco and Mauritania will meet in Algiers to discuss tactics to wipe out the ravenous swarms. The move is an important step, but whatever plan is devised, the locust plague promised to get worse before the insects can be brought under control.

6. The main idea of the first sentence in the passage is that ____.

[A] the command post is stationed with people all the time.

[B] the command post is crowded with people all the time.

[C] there are clocks around the command post.

[D] the clock in the command post is taken care of by the staff.

7. The favorable breeding ground for the locust is ____.

[A] rich soil.

[B] wet land

[C] spaces covered crops and vegetation

[D] the Red Sea

8. People are alert at the threat of the locust because ____.

[A] the insects are likely to create another African famine.

[B] the insects may blacken the sky.

[C] the number of the insects increases drastically.

[D] the insects are gathering and moving in great speed.

9. Which of the following is true?

[A] Once the pesticides are used, locust will die immediately.

[B] Relief efforts are proved most fruitful due to the effectiveness of certain pesticides. [C] Dieldrin, the most effective locust killer, has been widely accepted in many countries. [D] Over 10 million acres of affected area will have been treated with locust-killing chemicals by the end of June.

10. The purpose for affected nations to meet in Algiers on May 30 is ____.

[A] to devise antilocust plans.

[B] to wipe out the swarms in two years.

[C] to call out for additional financial aid from other nations.

[D] to bring the insects under control before the plague gets worse.

Passage Three

sports ship of the Olympic Stadium by Dow Chemical is to push the International Olympic Committee to appoint an “ethics champion” for future Games.

The Commission for a Sustainable London 2012 has been bruised by criticism over Dow’s sponsorship of the wrap that will surround the Olympic stadium, particularly since commissioner Meredith Alexander last month resigned in protest.

Campaigners believe that Dow has ongoing liabilities relating to the 1984 Bhopal disaster that resulted in the deaths of an estimated 20,000 people and the serious injury of tens of thousands more. Dow, which bought the owner of the plant in 2001, insists that all liabilities have been settled in full.

Commission chairman Shaun McCarthy said that its tight sustainability remit did not extend to acting as moral guardian of the Olympic movement but that it would press for such a role to be created when evaluating sponsors for future Games.

In addition to sponsoring the 7m pounds wrap that will surround the Olympic Stadium, Dow has a separate 100m dollars sponsorship deal with the IOC that was signed in 2010. But McCarthy also defended the commission’s role in evaluating the Dow deal, after Amnesty International wrote to London 2012 chairman Lord Coe to raise the issue.

“What has been lost in all of this story is that a really excellent, sustainable product has been procured, we looked at Locog’s examination of Dow Chemical’s current corporate responsibility policies and, again, Dow achieved that highest score in that evaluation. We verified that.” said McCarthy.

“As far as the history is concerned and issues around Bhopal, there is no doubt Bhopal was a terrible disaster and snore injustice was done to the victims. Who is responsible for that injustice is a matter for the courts and a matter for others. We have a specific remit and terms of reference that we operate under and we have operated diligently under those terms.”

The commission will on Thursday release its annual review. It finds that “good press” has been made to wands many of Locog’s sustainability target, but that “major challenges” remain.

In particular, the commission found that there was no coherent strategy to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon emissions after an earlier scheme to use renewable energy feel through when a wind turbine on the site proved impractical.

“We had conversations with Locog over a year ago about this and said they had to demonstrate how they were going to achieve at least 20% carbon reductions through energy conservation if they’re not going to do it through renewable energy,” said McCarthy. “There are some good initiatives, but quite frankly they justhaven’t done it.”

11. Why was Dow’s sponsorship criticized according to the passage?

[A] The products are not sustainable.

[B] It was related to Bhopal disaster.

[C] It bribed the London Olympic committee.

[D] It can’t reduce 20% of the carbon emission.

12. What is Paragraph 4 mainly about?

[A] Commission’s role

[B] Commission’s achievements

[C] Commission’s complaints

[D] Commission’s defense

13. Which of the following words can best replace the underlined word “row” (Para. 1)?

[A] line [B] argument

[C] boating [D] course

14. What is one of the challenges of the sustainability target mentioned in the passage? [A] Ethic champion of the games.

[B] Reduction in carbon emissions.

[C] The wind turbine proved to be impractical.

[D] Renewable energy is not available.

15. Which of the following can best summarize the passage?

[A] Commission defends its own role in evaluating controversial.

[B] Dow’s way to the 2012 London Olympic Games.

[C] Campaign against Dow’s sponsorship.

[D] IOC’s review on the controversy.

Passage Four

As Facebook dominates the news with its initial public offering, activists are seizing the moment to pressure the company to add some estrogen and ethnicity to its white-male board.

A women’s rights group called Ultraviolet, which has been running an online petition that claims to have attracted more than 50,000 signatures, is escalating its push, posting a new YouTube video called “Do Women Have a Future at Facebook?”. The video shows photos of successful women such as Hillary Clinton getting their heads cropped off the replaced with the smiling face of Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg.

“Facebook has grown off the backs of women, who make up the majority of its users and are responsible for the majority of sharing and fan activity on the site,” the group says in a blurb accompanying the video. An all-male board, the group says, is “not just wrong, it’s bad for business”. A related campaign, called Face It, criticizes the lack of ethnic diversity on the seven-member board. “seven white men: That’s ridiculous,” the group says on its homepage, along side headshots of the men. The campaign, which lists dozens of human-rights groups and corporate executives as supporters, also has its own YouTube video. Called “Face it, Facebook”, the video cites a recent Zuckerberg letter to investors that says:“Facebook was not originally created to be a company. It was built to accomplish a social mission-to make the world more open and connected.”

co-chairwoman of Women Corporate Directors, an organization for female corporate board members, says Zuckerberg’s thinking is flawed. “If you’re trying to expand a company globally, then you want someone on the board who has built a global brand,” she says. “Most of these guys on Facebook’s board all have the same skills-they’re mostly from Silicon Valley and Washington. You want someone who has worked in China and India and rising markets. You want someone who has marketed to women. When you’re putting together a board, you don’t want your best friends, you want the best people.” Having zero female directors does not appear to be a good business plan, research shows. Companies with women on the board perform substantially better than companies with all-mall boards, according to a 2011 study of Fortune 500 companies conducted by the research group Catalyst. The study showed that over the course of four to five years, companies with three or more female board members, on average, outperformed

companies with no female board members by 84 percent when it came to return on sales and by 60 percent when it came to return on invested capital.

Facebook may secretly be on the lookout for a female board member, according to a recent Bloomberg report. Citing unnamed sources, Bloomberg said Facebook had enlisted the corporate-recruitment firm Spencer Stuart to help seek some diversity. Spencer Stuary says it does not comment on clients due to confidentiality agreements.

16. Which of the following descriptions is CORRECT about the Ultraviolet Group?

[A] It is a non-government organization.

[B] It is appealing for “more female roles in big corporations like Facebook” through the Internet.

[C] It has the support of many female celebrities such as Hillary Clinton.

[D] It is getting more and more support from the society.

17. Which of the following descriptions is INCORRECT about the campaign “Face It”? [A] It pointed out the irrational composition of Facebook’s board of directors.

[B] The campaign has plenty of human-rights supporters.

[C] It indicated the original objective of Zuckerberg’s establishment of Facebook.

[D] It is constantly using other media devices to support Facebook.

18. The underlined phrase “at odds with” in the fourth paragraph has the closest meaning of ____.

[A] against all odds [B] supported by

[C] disagree with [D] waifs and strays

19. According to Susan Stauberg, a well-performed business should _____.

[A] have a complex system of management.

[B] possess the most market globally.

[C] have your best and close friends as your board members.

[D] have a diverse board member in which everyone has his/her own specialties and can contribute different skills into the corporation.

20. What will probably happen to Facebook?

[A] The corporation will turn to Spencer Stuart for recruiting more female board members.

[B] The corporation will dominate the news because its worldwide popularity.

[C] The corporation will gradually lose its users because it does not have female board members.

[D] None of the above.

Passage Five

For this generation of young people, the future looks bleak. Only one in six is working full time. Three out of five live with their parents or other relatives. A large majority-73 percent-think they need more education to find a successful career, but only half of those say they will definitely enroll in the next few years. No, they are not the idle youth of Greece or Spain or Egypt. They are the youth of America, the world’s richest country, who do not have college degrees and aren’t getting them anytime soon. Whatever the sob

situation for their less-educated peers is far worse. For this group, finding work that pays a living wage and offers some sense of security has been elusive.

Despite the continuing national conversation about whether college is worth it given the debt burden it entails, most high school graduates without college degrees said they believe they would be unable to get good jobs without more education.

Getting it is challenging, though, and not only because of formidable debt levels. Ms. McClour and her husband, Andy, have two daughters under 3 and another due next month. She said she tried enrolling in college classes, but the workload became too stressful with such young children. Mr. McClour works at a gas station. He hates his work and wants to study phlebotomy, but the nearest school is an hour and half away.

Many of these young people had been expecting to go to college since they started high school, perhaps anticipating that employers would demand skills high schools do not teach. Just one in ten high school graduates without college degrees said they were “extremely well prepared by their high school to succeed in their job after graduation.” These young people worried about getting left behind and were pessimistic about reaching some of the milestones that make up the American dream. More than half-56 percent-of high school graduates without college diplomas said that their generation would have less financial success than their parents. About the same share believed they would find work that offered health insurance within that time frame. Slightly less than half of respondents said the next few years would bring work with good job security or a job with earnings that were high “enough to lead a comfortable life”. They were similarly pessimistic about being able to start a family or buy a home.

The online survey was conducted between March 21 and April 2, and covered a nationally representative survey of 544 high school graduates from the classes of 2006-11 who did not have bachelor’s degrees. The margin of sampling error was plus or minus 5 percentage points.

21. What does the underlined phrase “spinning their wheels” mean in Paragraph 1?

[A] fastening the pace [B] confusing the situation

[C] asking for help [D] scooting out

22. What will the high school graduates probably do according to the article?

[A] Find jobs right after graduation.

[B] Receive further study in college.

[C] Go to join the national conversation.

[D] Pay for the debt.

23. What does the story of “Andy and Ms. McClour” try to inform us?

[A] They both prefer making money to education.

[B] Colleges do not accept students who are married and have children.

[C] Although people are eager to join in the college, life burden may block in the way. [D] None of the above.

24. What is the financial outlook for this generation compared with their parents?

[A] They have a prosperous outlook compared with the last generation.

[B] Their financial situation is not as successful as their parents.

[C] It depends on how hard they work and their educational background.

[D] Not mentioned in the article.

25. What can we infer from the last sentence?

[A] The online survey is done nationally.

[B] The result of the survey is completely trustworthy.

[C] There is more or less inaccuracy of the survey.

[D] The survey will have a continuous part coming soon.

Passage Six

Some 60 years ago, George Orwell wrote an allegorical novel, called Nineteen Eighty-Four , to describe life in a futuristic Britain under a one party police-sate presided over by an all-powerful figure known as Big Brother. One of the fealures of the nasty world described by Orwell was its systematic misuse of language, which went by the name of “Newspeak”. By re-defining words and endlessly repeating them, the Ministry of Truth through the Thought Police was able to control what people thought, and through that, their actions. Language was instrumental in destroying the culture.

The same technique is being used by different people today, with similar effects. In all areas of public administration, the words “spouse”, “husband” and “wife” have been replace by the word “partner”, although the words are subtly but substantially different in meaning, and convey different realities. In some schools and university departments, feminist ideologues have dictated that the personal pronoun “he” must not be used, and is

replaced by the word “they”, which means something different. The word “homophobic”, which just a few years ago was used to describe a person who supported vigilante action against homosexuals, is now being used to describe anyone who defends the universal definition of marriage.

Although the transformation of language is seen most obviously around social issues, it is also being used systematically to shape political debate. So, we are told that the federal government is introducing a Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme, which is newspeak for its new carbon tax. The fact is that the new tax is not remotely concerned with “carbon pollution” at all, but rather with emissions of the gas CO2 which is not a

every living plant and creature. By the government’s own admission, it will not lead to any reduction in CO2 levels, either in Australia or globally. And the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme is being introduced in Australia at the same time the government is expanding exports of coal, which is virtually 100 percent carbon, to countries such as China.

We live in a society in which the ordinary meaning of words is being systematically manipulated by spin-doctors and ideologues, as a means of changing the way people think, and, more fundamentally, the way they act. Language is an important part of the culture wars. For those of us who see this as a challenge to the foundations of society, it is important that we identify the problem and expose it.

It is clearly preferable to avoid using the new debased, transformed language of the politically-correct left, although this can be difficult in situations where constant usage has already normalized it, as has happened with the term “same -sex marriage”. The alternative phrase, “same -sex unions”, has a different meaning. When such terms are used, they should be identified for what they are: a form of linguistic dishonesty, designed to undermine existing institutions and transform them.

26. Which of the following descriptions is INCORRECT about George Orwell’s allegorical novel Nineteen Eighty-Four?

[A] It describes a story that happens in the future.

[B] One of the features in the novel is the misuse of language.

[C] It is the most famous detective novel in the world.

[D] It was written in the 20th century.

27. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an example of misuse of language? [A] Feminists insist “he” be replaced by “they”.

[B] “Partner” has taken the place of “husband” and “wife”.

[C] “Homophobic” is now being employed to refer to defend conventional

understanding of marriage.

[D] The meaning of “literacy” is no longer restricted to the ability to read and write. 28. The example of carbon pollution is used to illustrate _______.

[A] transformation of language is usually seen in social issues.

[B] transformation of language is also tracked in political debate.

[C] transformation of language is generated in the age of information.

[D] transformation of language is legitimate to a certain extent.

29. The underlined word “credible” in Para. 3 means ______.

[A] reliable [B] correct

[C] beneficial [D] provable

30. According to the passage, transformed language serves to _______.

[A] make people sound fashionable

[B] change the way people think and act

[C] eliminate discrimination against minorities

[D] None of the above

II. Vocabulary (10%; 0.5 mark each)

31. The town was flooded when the river burst its banks. To make it worse, the storm _____ outside.

[A] raided [B]ragged [C] raged [D]reaped

32. My new laptop can _____ information much more quickly than my old computer. [A] proceed [B] precede [C] produce [D] process

33. The country’s failure to abide by the Kyoto Protocol was _____ in all newspapers. [A] announced [B] denounced [C] renounced [D] trounced

34. The company has _____ over three decades into a multi-million dollar organization. [A] evolved [B] revolved [C] involved [D] devolved

35. We would like to _____ our customers of the best possible service.

[A] assure [B] ensure [C] insure [D] ensue

36. The government has promised to offer 10 million of emergency food aid to help ______ the famine in this region.

[A] release [B] relate [C] reveal [D]relieve

37. The course _____ two years’ training into six intensive months.

[A] impresses [B] compresses [C] depresses [D] represses 38. Make sure you pour the juice into the glass without _____ it.

[A] splitting [B] spilling [C] spinning [D] spitting

39. The vast majority of people in any culture _____ to the established standard of that culture.

[A] confine [B] conform [C] confront [D] confirm

40. Tom pointed out that the living standard of urban and _____ people continued to improve.

[A] remote [B] municipal [C] rural [D] provincial 41. The Egyptians _____ an area almost equal to France and Spain combined.

[A] dwell [B] settle [C] reside [D] inhabit

42. I’m going to have to take these clothes off, for I’m _____ to the skin!

[A] dipped [B] soaked [C] immersed [D] submerged

43. The WHO has to come up with new and effective measures to _____ his next move in the game.

[A] limit [B] cut [C] curb [D] keep

44. My grandfather sat back in his chair for a few minutes to _____ his next move in the game.

[A] think [B] ponder [C] reflect [D] dwell

45. At this school we aim to _____ the minds of all the students by reading.

[A] cultivate [B] instruct [C] teach [D] coach

46. Most doctors _____ on a diet which contains a lot of fat.

[A] criticize [B] object [C] oppose [D] frown

47. Since you intend to sell your house, how will you _____ of all the furniture?

[A] disapprove [B] discard [C] dispose [D] disregard

48. The politicians were discussing the best way to _____ democracy and prosperity in their country.

[A] hinder [B] foster [C] linger [D] quote

49. Only one member of the committee _____ from the final report.

[A] dissented [B] crawled [C] whispered [D] redeemed

50. We always try to _____ him with financial assistance if necessary.

[A] dazzle [B] sanction [C] accommodate [D] terminate

III. Cloze (10%; 0.5 mark each)

The term “quality of life” is difficult to define. It (51) a very wide scope such as living environment, health, employment, food, family life, friends, education, material possessions, leisure and recreation, and so on. (52) speaking, the quality of life, especially (53) seen by the individual, is meaningful in terms of the degree (54) which these various areas of life are available or provide (55) for the individual.

As activity carried (56) as one thinks fit during one’s spare time, leisure has the following (57): relaxation, recreation and entertainment, and personal development. The importance of these varies according to the nature of one’s job and one’s life style. (58), people who need to (59) much energy in their work will find relaxation most (60) in leisure. Those with a better education and in professional occupations may (61) more to seek recreation and personal development (e.g.(62) of skills and hobbies) in leisure.

The specific use of leisure (63) from individual to individual. (64) the same leisure activity may be used differently by different individuals. Thus, the following are possible uses of television watching, a (65) leisure activity, a change of experience to provide (66) from the stress and strain of work; to learn more about what is happening in one’s environment; to provide an opportunity for understanding oneself by (67) other people’s life experiences as (68) in the programs.

Since leisure is basically self-determined, one is able to take (69) his interests and preferences and get (70) in an activity in ways that will bring enjoyment and satisfaction.

51. [A] composes [B] consists [C] covers [D] constitutes

52. [A] Basically [B] Frankly [C] Primarily [D] Generally

53. [A] when [B] as [C] while [D] which

54. [A] to [B] as [C] of [D] in

55. [A] satisfaction [B] information [C] respect [D] admiration

56. [A] out [B] through [C] away [D] off

57. [A] effects [B] operations [C] functions [D] features

58. [A] However [B] Thus [C] Nevertheless [D] Yet

59. [A] provide [B] hire [C] exercise [D] exert

60. [A] preferable [B] desirable [C] obtainable [D] perfect

61. [A] tend [B] prefer [C] enjoy [D] oblige

62. [A] training [B] promotion [C] nurturing [D] cultivation

63. [A] varies [B] differs [C] changes [D] alters

64. [A] Still [B] Yet [C] Even [D] So

65. [A] correct [B] adequate [C] precise [D] proper

66. [A] separation [B] escape [C] flight [D] isolation

67. [A] contrasting [B] comparing [C] matching [D] measuring

68. [A] portrayed [B] described [C] related [D] narrated

69. [A] after [B] on [C] with [D] to

70. [A] involved [B] participated [C] attended [D] employed

IV. Translation (30%)

Part A (20%)

Translate the following passage into Chinese.

The impact of decentralization trends, of course, extends well beyond cities. Sprawling development patterns are destabilizing many of the suburbs that surround cities in this country. Older suburbs are experiencing the same challenges as cities: failing schools, persistent crime, and the loss of jobs and businesses to other, further out suburbs. Even suburban areas that are developing rapidly are finding that explosive growth has its drawbacks, especially in the form of overcrowded schools, but also in long commutes and the inability of local governments to pay for new roads, sewers, and other infrastructure.

In the wake of decentralizing economies, central cities remain the residence of “choice” for low-and moderate-income families. While poverty has declined in central cities, urban poverty rates are still twice as high as suburban poverty rates, 18.8 percent as against 9.0 percent in 2011 Cities and older suburbs are also disproportionately home to families whose earnings are above the poverty level, but below median income (national median income is $37,000 a yeas and 200 percent of the poverty for a family of three is $27,000 a year).

The implications of concentrated poverty are severe. People in these neighborhoods often face a triple whammy: poor schools, weak job information networks, and scarce jobs. They are more likely to live in female-headed households and have less formal educations than residents of other neighborhoods.

Part B (10%)

Translate the following sentences into English.

71.俗话说,牙疼不是病,但疼起来真要命。前些日子我突然开始牙疼,随便找了点止 疼药,希望赶紧止住疼痛。可试了好些天都不管用,最后还是得找牙医。

72. 自由贸易就意味着竞争, 而竞争则意味着风险, 特别是当它影响到国家繁荣的时候。 所以国家会想办法保护自己免遭自由贸易的冲击。

73.然而,退休后,社会安全福利只取代了一般人收入的约 40%。而多数财政顾问认 为,退休者将需要大约 70%-80%工作时的收入,方能过上舒适的退休生活。

74. 大多数与他人不愉快的经历都是无心的,很容易通过保持无成见的、 公开诚恳的交 流来补救。礼节性常识是一种有价值的优势,因为在很多场合,要获得第二次机会也许 不切实际。

75. 虽说分离的确是种美德, 但是在社交媒体上过度分离, 不仅会伤害友情更是会殃及 事业前途。人们需要在私生活与职场生活、分离与炫耀、好心与惹人厌之间寻求一种良 性平衡。

V. Writing (20%)

Directions: Some people prefer to stay in the same job for the same company, but others prefer to change jobs frequently. Please write a composition to discuss both sides and give your own opinion. Your composition should be about 150 English words. Write your composition on the Answer Sheet.

答案:

完 型 :67—— 71:CDBAC 72—— 76:ACBCB 77—— 81: ADCCB 82—— 86:DBBDA

英译汉:当然, 分散化趋势的影响远远超出了城市范围。 无序扩张的发展格局破 坏着全美各城市周围许多郊区的稳定。 年代较久的郊区经受着和市区同样的挑战:学校教育质量每况愈下、 犯罪屡禁不止、 就业和商业机会流失到其他更远的郊区。 即便是发展迅速的郊区也出现了爆炸式增长的弊端,尤其体现在学校过度拥挤、 上下班交通耗时长, 以及当地政府无力出资建造新的道路、 下水道和其他基础设 施。

尽管经济呈分散化发展,但中低收入家庭仍然选择居住在市中心。虽然市中心 的贫困率已降低, 但市区贫困率却仍是郊区的两倍; 1997年市区贫困率是 18.8%, 而郊区却只有 9.0%。

许多收入高于贫困线却又低于平均线的家庭都选择在市区和年代较久的郊区安 家落户,其数量之多超乎寻常(全国平均线是年均 2.7万美元,一个三口之家的 贫困标准是一年 1.35万美元)。

贫困集中化的后果十分严重。 这些居住区的居民经常面临着三重打击:学校质量 差、工作信息网络薄弱、就业机会少得可怜。和其他居民区相比,这里的家庭更 可能由女性当家,居民接受的正规教育也更少。
 

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