2016年南京农业大学博士研究生入学考试英语试题(附答案解析)

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南京农业大学 2016年博士研究生入学考试英语试题

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1. 所有题目(包括填空、选择、图表等类型题目)答题答案必须做在考点发给的答题纸上,做在本试题册上无效。请考生务必在答题纸 上写清题号。

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3. 答题时一律使用蓝、黑色墨水笔或圆珠笔作答(画图可用铅笔) ,用其它笔答题不给分。

4. 答题时不准使用涂改液等具有明显标记的涂改用品。

PART I Vocabulary (15points)

Section A

Directions : Choose the word that is the closest synonym to the underlined word.

A. demand B. view C. request D. opinion

A. written-about B. productive C. artful D. religious

A. enlightenment B. astonishment C. annoyance D. contrariness

A. fearlessly B. confidently C. silently D. prudently

A. recommended B. reproached C. recompensed D. reversed

A. traces B. shards C. products D. artifacts

A. extravagant B. careful C. impotent D. impulsive

A. painstaking B. dilatory C. meretricious D. gaudy

A. a decision of guilty B. a decision to punish by electrocution

C. an impasse D. an unusual verdict

over a variety of misdemeanors.

A. guidance B. sovereignty C. authority D. suzerainty

11. A mistake is rarely atoned for by a single apology, however profuse.

A. extravagant B. produced C. divergent D. repetitious

A. permanent B. temporary C. corrupt D. craven

A. demolished B. took over C. inhabited D. thoroughlysearched

A. millionaires B. endorsements C. governments D. donations

A. overlooked B. praise C. condemned D. satisfied

Section B

Directions : Choose the answer that best completes the sentence.

16. When he realized the true nature of the proposal, he ________ all communication with the group.

A. convert B. averted C. severed D. make

17. The worsening financial situation made it obvious that an economic depression was _____.

A. attainable B. remote C. imminent D. eminent

18. All of the dental instruments need to be _______ before the next patient isseen.

A. heated B. scalded C. sterilized D. burned

19. Rock climbing is so popular now that many people are able to ________ the steepest face withgreat agility. A. scale B. surpass C. overcome D. mount

20. If you call the 911 emergency number, they will ________ firemen, policemen, and paramedics immediately.

A. assign B. detach C. attach D. dispatch

21. His evident _______ to his wife despite her indiscretion proved him to be a man of integrity.

A. personality B. character C. fidelity D. morality

22. I don't know why he has been given ________. It wasn't his accomplishment but his wife's.

A. acclaim B. confidence C. reimbursement D. robustness

23. After a concert tour in Asia, Canada and the U. S., he will _______ work on a five-language opera.

A. confine B. indulge C. resume D. undergo

24. When Ph. D candidates ________ their impending professorships, they consider housing benefitsoffered by the prospective universities.

A. anticipate B. assume C. apply D.demand

25. My supply of confidence slowly ________ as the deadline approached.

A. withdrew B. eliminated C. exterminatedD. diminished

26. The battle is of great significance when viewed in the ________ of the progress of the war.

A. prospective B. respectiveC. perspective D. prescriptive

27. It has long been known that total sleep ________ is 100 percent fatal to rats, yet, upon examination of the dead bodies, the animals look completely normal.

A. deposition B. destruction C. deprivation D. reduction

28. In that country, hospital doctors don't go sightseeing very often because their work ________ almost all their time.

A. takes up B. takes off C. takes apart D. takes over

29. According to the law of that country, the Parliament will have to be ________ before the General Election. A. decomposed B. dispersed C. dissolved D. disintegrated

30. He failed to carry out some of the provisions of the contract, and now he has to ________ theconsequences.

A. answer for B. run into C. abide by D. step into

PART Ⅱ Grammar (15 points) Section A Directions : Choose the letter that indicates the error in the sentence. A B C D

A B

C D

A B

C D

D

A

B C D

A B C D

A

B C

D

A B

C D

A B C

D

A B C

D

A B C D

A B

C D

A B

C D

A B

C D

step onthe carpet.

A B C D

groupings.

Section B

Directions : Choose the answer that best fills in the blank.

46. ________ that the earth was flat?

A. Used it to be thought B. Did it used to be thought

C. Was it need to being thought D. Does it used to be thought

47. It is most inappropriate ________in the college VIP lounge.

A. for any students to be there B. for there to be any students

C. to be any students there D. to have there any students

48. She ________ much more accurate responses now, had she taken more pains in devising thequestions. A. got B. would have got C. had got D. would be getting

49. An extensive foundation in the basic sciences should be required of all science students, ________.

A. whether they are future physicists or chemists.

B. be they future physicists or chemists.

C. they are future physicists or chemists.

D. they should be future physicists or chemists.

50. The general opinion is that he is ________ to complain.

A. so much a milquetoast B. too a milquetoast

C. too much of a milquetoast D. so much of a milquetoast

51. Although of course there are exceptions, it seems reasonably dear that in certain countries -Rwanda, Somalia and parts of the former Yugoslavia come to mind-hunger is less a result of an absolutefoodshortage, ________ a policy decision or the political situation.

A. than of B. rather than C. but the result of D. than is

52. The ozone layer plays as great arole in the suability of spaceship Earth as ________ the waters ofits lakes, ponds, oceans, rivers, and streams.

A. do B. does C. play D. are

53. Perhaps I should not have done so, but I changed my mind about the new job even though I was ________ last week.

A. to be started B. to have started C. to have been starting D. start

54. Despite an overlay of quasi-literary French vocabulary stemming from the Norman Invasion of1066, the daily vocabulary of English remained Germanic, _______ its grammatical structure.

A. the same are B. and so are C. as did D. and so were

55. Although money is always useful, it isn't all ________.

A. what there is to life B. to which there is in life C. there is to life D. that is in life

56. ________ ever so humble, there's no plane like home.

A. It be B. Be it C. It was D. Was it

57. ________ all customs, no matter how sacrosanct, are essentially learned reactions appropriate, perhaps only to the holders thereof is a basic assumption of anthropologists.

A. Nearly B. It is nearly C. That nearly D. When nearly

58. Although women cluster to him like moths around a flame, he is none______ happier for it.

A. but B. the C. match D. any

59. The major reason why Americans enjoy an abundant food supply is that the arable land at theirdisposal for food production is ________.

A. three times more the world average B. three times as much the world average

C. three times the world average D. the world average is three times

60.The sound of the roaring of a tiger is ________ heard by jungle dwellers ________ feelings of unease,for a year does not elapse without victims falling to the tiger's ferocity.

A. always...with B. ever...without C.ever...with D. never...without

PART Ⅲ Clone test (10 points)

Directions : Choose the word that best completes the meaning.

One of the basic characteristics of capitalism is the private ownership of the major means of andpolitical power. Some recent theorists, have argued that our society has moved to a new stageof call "postindustrial" society. One important change in such society is that

well as

There are many is that wealthy capitalists canbuy the knowledge in an advanced industrial society, as the of some new industries genetic

new knowledge.

Moving down from the level of wealth and power, we still find knowledge increasingly Manynew high-tech jobs are being created at the upper-skill, low-paying Something like acaste line is

age will find it almost impossible to catch up later, nomatter how hard they try. Illiteracy in English language 61. A. quantitative B. extensive C. comprehensive D. sophisticated

62. A. moreover B. however C. thereforeD. nevertheless

63. A. aggression B. proficiency C. productivity D. evolution

64. A. dominant B. impressive C. magnificent D. significant

65. A. source B. factor C. component D. element

66.A. adequate B. profitable C. material D. spiritual

67. A. advantages B. consequences C. problems D. potentials

68.A. them B. those C. which D. that

69. A. deny B. refuseC. admit D. acknowledge

70. A. emergenceB. innovation C. extinctionD. discovery

71. A. In addition B. For example C. Above all D. In short

72. A. produced B. created C. improved D. facilitated

73. A. line B. need C. doubt D. match

74. A. idealized B. recognizedC. supervised D. summarized

75. A. stepped in B. settled down C. leaned over D. mined out

76. A. accessibleB. important C. popular D. abundant

77.A. enterprises B. employment C. professions D. industries

78. A. control B. mastery C. searchD. pursuit

79. A. handicap B. penalty C. inconvenience D. shortcoming

80. A. enforce B. punish C. confine D. condemn

PART Ⅳ READING OOMPREHENSION (30 points)

Directions : Answer all questions based on the information in the passages below.

Passage 1

Let us assume, for the moment, that labor is not prepared to work for a lower money-wage and that a reduction in the existing level of money-wages would lead, through strikes or otherwise, to a withdrawalfrom the labor market of labor which is now employed. Does it follow from this that the existing level of real wages accurately measures the marginal disutility of labor? Not necessarily. For, although a reduction in theexisting money-wage would lead to a withdrawal of labor, it does not follow that a fall in the value of theexisting money-wage in terms of wage-goods would do so, if it were due to a rise in the price of the latter.In other words, it may be the case that within a certain range the demand of labor is for aminimum money-wage and not for a minimum real wage. The classical school has tacitly assumed that this would involve nosignificant change in their theory. But this is not so. For if the supply of labor is not a function of realwages as its sole variable, their argument breaks down entirely and leaves the question of what the actual employment will be quite indeterminate. They do not seem to have realized that, unless the supply of labor is a function of real wages alone, their supply curve for labor will shift bodily with every movement ofprices. Thus their method is tied up with their very special assumptions, and cannot be adapted to dealwith the more general case.

Now ordinary experience tells us, beyond doubt, that a situation where labor stipulates (within limits)for a money-wage rather than a real wage, so far from being a mere possibility, is the normal case. Whilstworkers

will usually resist areduction of money-wages, it is not their practice to withdraw their labor whenever there is a rise in the price of wage-goods. It is sometimes said that it would be illogical for labor to resist a reduction of money-wages but not to resist a reduction of real wages. For reasons given below, thismight not be so illogical as it appears at first; and, as we shall see later, fortunately so. But, whether logical or illogical, experience shows that this is how labor in fact behaves.

Moreover, the contention that the unemployment which characterizes a depression is due to a refusal by labor to accept a reduction of money-wages is not clearly supported by the facts. It is not very plausibleto assert that unemployment in the United States in 1932 was due either to labor obstinately refusing to accept a reduction of money-wages or to its obstinately demanding a real wage beyond what the productivity ofthe economic machine was capable of furnishing. Wide variations are experienced in the volume of employment without any apparent change either in the minimum real demands of labor or in its productivity. Laboris not more truculent in the depression than in the boom-fax from it. Nor is its physical productivity less.These facts from experience are a prima facie ground for questioning the adequacy of the classical analysis.

81. "Labor is not prepared to work for a lower money-wage". The sentencemeans ________.

A. a fall in the value of the existing money-wage would lead to a withdrawal of labor

B. a rise in the price of wage-goods would lead to a withdrawal of labor

C. the demand of labor is for a rise of existing money-wage

D. the demand of labor is for reduction in the value of real wages

82. The classical school refers to ________.

A. those scholars with traditional idea B. the traditional school

C. the experts who hold to the standard theory D. all of the above

83. According to the author, the supply curve for labor depends on the ________.

A. red money wages B. movement of priceC. function of money-wages D. both A & B

84. “ Their" method cannot be adapted to deal with the more general case because they have not realized that ________.

A. a fall in the value of real wages would lead to a withdrawal of the labor from market of labor

B. a reduction in the existing level of money-wages would lead to a withdrawal from the labor marketof labor

C. the supply of labor is not a function of real wages

D. the demand of labor is only for a minimum money-wages

85. How dose labor usually behave?

A. Labor would stipulate for money-wage.

B. Labor would violently resist a reduction of real wages.

C. Labor would strenuously resist a reduction of both money-wages and real wages.

D. Labor would stipulate for real wages.

86. The last paragraph of thus passage indicates that ________.

A. labor resisted a reduction of money-wages, which characterized the depression of the 1930s in the U.S.

B. labor demanded a real wage, which characterized the depression of 1930s in the U. S.

C. neither labor refusing to work for a lowermoney-wage nor demanding a real wage could characterizethe depression of 1930s in the U. S.

D. both A & B

Passage 2

The law of private international tribunals with respect to conflicts of interest of arbitrators is quite extensive, albeit by no means uniform. It relates both to what will disqualify an arbitrator and to what the arbitrator must disclose during the selection process. Most national legal systems have statutory rules as to thetype of interests, relationships, and experiences that disqualify an arbitrator. Not infrequently, the disqualifying factors are identical for arbitrators and judges, although they may treat domestic and internationalarbitration somewhat differently, and may indeed supplement the international roles with additional features. A closer look reveals that courts and arbitration agencies tend to apply the regulations relatively lightly, recognizing that arbitrators move in the highly interconnected world of affairs, and do not stand alooffrom commerce as judges do. Accordingly, acquaintanceship with the parties and their counsel does notsuffice to disqualify, whereas actual business or legal connections will. Inasmuch as judges do not seek more work, although arbitrators generally do, suspicions arise that an arbitrator's favor may incline to theparty or counsel who has in the past and may again in the future provide employment.

The uncertainty in the held is at its most troubling when arbitrators are party-appointed. Some arguethat such arbitrators should fulfill he same functions and satisfy the same qualifications as third-party arbitrators, others dispute any real claim to objectivity. The latter view has had considerable currency, particularly in the United States, where courts and drafters of state laws regard such advocates as pawns of the appointers. Imposing standard of neutrality and disinterestedness on them would he futile.

It follows from this dichotomy between party-appointed and non-party-appointed arbitrators that opinionon the question of their nationality is also split. A party needs to be expected to choose a fellow national.This question of nationality is acute when one party to the arbitration is a governmental agency and one ormore of the arbitrators are likewise nationals; a foreign enterprise contract calling for such arbitration may be foolhardy.

The slate is largely blank with respect to roles for the conduct of arbitrators outside the field of conflictof interests. Considering only the matter of communications, American case law is astonishing lax,refusing to set aside awards where such communication obtained between an arbitrator and a party withoutthe presence of the other party, thereby violating evidentiary rules requiring the attendance of both patties.The differences in views on this topicindicate how useful a set of guidelines might be.

87. The best title for this passage is __________.

A. International Arbitrators: Causes and Solutions

B. Arbitrators: Causes and Solutions

C. Arbitrators: Problems in Practice

D. International Arbitrators and Conflicts of Interests

88. The expression"They may treat" refers to __________.

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