财政部财政科学研究所 2015年招收攻读博士学位研究生入学考试 英语试题
PART ONE: Grammar (15 points)
Directions : Below each sentence, there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that is closest in meaning to the underlined word in the sentence or that best completes the sentence. Please write the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.
1. The quality of teaching should be measured by the degree the students’ potentiality is developed.
A. of which B. with which C. in which D. to which
2. Another food crop raised by Indians strange to the European was called Indian corn. A. who were B. that were C. that was D. who was
3. We moved to the new house in the suburbs so that the kids would have a garden . A. in which to play B. to play with C. to play D. where to play
4. There are many copper mines in the state of Arizona, contributes significantly to the state ’ s economy.
A. a fact B. which fact C. whose fact D . that
5. Hydrogen is the fundamental element of the universe it provides the building blocks from which the other elements are produced.
A. so that B. but that C. in that D. provided that
6. Nearly all trees contains a mix of polymers that can burn like petroleum properly extracted.
A. after B. if C. when it D. is
7. The early years of the United States government were characterized by a debate concerning or individual states should have more power.
A. whether the federal government
B. either the federal government
C. that the federal government
D.the federal government
8. Exploration of the Solar System is continuing, and at the present rate of progress all the planets within the next 50 years.
A. will have been contacted B. will have contacted
C. will be contacted D. will contact
9. By the year of 2025, scientists probably a cure for cancer.
A. will be discovering B. are discovering
C. will have discovered D. have discovered
10. Thomas Edison’ s first patented invention was a device in Congress.
A. for counting votes B. that counting votes C. counts votes D.counted votes 11. Using many symbols makes to put a large amount of information on a single map. A. possible B. it is possible C. it possible D. that possible
12. Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely to the outside world.
A. being lost B. having lost C. losing D.lost
13. Beef cattle of all livestock for economic growth in the certain geographic regions. A. the most are important B. are the most important
C. is the most important D.that are most important
14. advance and retreat in their eternal rhythms, but the surface of the sea itself is never at rest.
A. Not only when the tides do B.As the tides not only do
C. Not only do the tides D. Do the tides not only
15. divorce ourselves from the masses of the people.
A. In no time we should B. In no time should we
C. At no time we should D.At no time should we
PART TWO: Reading comprehension (20 points)
Directions :There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished sentences. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. You should decide on the best choice and write the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.
Passage 1 (5 points)
The good news made headlines nationwide: Deaths from several kinds of cancer have declined significantly in recent years. But the news has to be bittersweet for many cancer patients and their families. Every year, more than 500000 people in the United States still die of cancer. In fact, more than half of all patients diagnosed with cancer will die of their disease within a few years. And while it’ s true survival is longer today than in the past, the quality of life for these patients is often greatly diminished. Cancer – and many of the treatments used to fight it - causes pain, nausea, fatigue, and anxiety that routinely go undertreated or untreated.
In the nation’ s single-minded focus on curing cancer, we have inadvertently devalued the critical need for palliative care, which focuses on alleviating physical and psychological
symptoms over the course of the disease. Nothing would have a greater impact on the daily lives of cancer patients and their families than good symptom control and supportive therapy. Yet the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the federal government’ s leader in cancer research and training, spent less than one percent of its 1999 budget on any aspect of research or training in palliative care.
The nation needs to get serious about reducing needless suffering. NCI should commit to and fund research aimed at improving symptom control and palliative care. NCI also could designate “ centers of excellence” among the cancer centers it recognizes. To get that designation, centers would deliver innovative, top-quality palliative care to all segments of the populations the centers serve; train professionals in medicine, nursing, psychology, social work, and other disciplines to provide palliative care; and conduct research.
Insurance coverage for palliative and hospice care also contributes to the problem by forcing people to choose between treatment or hospice care. This “ either/or” approach does not readily allow these two types of essential care to be integrated. The Medicare hospice benefit is designed specifically for people in the final stages of illness and allows enrollment only if patients are expected to survive six months or less. The benefit excludes patients from seeking both palliative care and potentially life-extending treatment.
That makes hospice enrollment an obvious deterrent for many patients. And hospices, which may have the most skilled practitioners and the most experience in administering palliative care, cannot offer their services to people who could really benefit but still are pursuing active treatment.
It is innately human to comfort and provide care to those suffering from cancer, particularly those close to death. Yet what seems self-evident at an individual, personal level has not guided policy at the level of institutions in this country. Death is inevitable, but severe suffering is not. To offer hope for a long life of the highest possible quality and to deliver the best quality cancer care from diagnoses to death, our public institutions need to move toward policies that value and promote palliative care.
16. Palliative care is concerned with improving patients’
A. survival rates
B. quality of life
D. options for health insurance providers
17. According to the author, research on palliative care for .
A. is more important than research for cancer cures
B. has been overlooked by researchers
C. is virtually non-existent
D. is regarded by researchers as a frivolous topic
18. The main problem of insurance coverage for hospice care and active treatment is that .
A. it does not allow patients to seek both
B. it only covers patients whose life expectancy is less than six months
C. it deprives patients of the right to choose between two proven treatment methods
D. hospice care is only covered when it may extend a patient’ s life expectancy
19. Hospices offer cancer patients .
A. an alternative to palliative care
B. comfort in their early stages of illness
C. skilled and experienced palliative care
D. an alternative to active treatment
20. This text is mainly about .
A. improving cancer research in the U.S
B. reforming insurance coverage for cancer patients
C. understanding different options for cancer treatment and care
D. reducing the suffering of cancer patients
Passage 2 (5 points)
Man and women do think differently, at least where the anatomy of the brain is concerned, according to a new study. The brain is made primarily of two different types of tissue, called gray matter and white matter. This new research reveals that men think more with their gray matter, and women think more with white. Researchers stressed that just because the two sexes think differently, this does not affect intellectual performance. Psychology professor Richard Haier of the University of California, Irvine led the research along with colleagues from the University of New Mexico. Their findings show that in general, men have nearly 6.5 times the amount of gray matter related intelligence compared with women, whereas women have nearly 10 times the amount of white matter related to intelligence compared with men. “ These findings suggested that human evolution has created two different types of brains designed for equally intelligent behavior, ” said Haier, adding that, “ by pinpointing these gender-based intelligence areas, the study has the potential to aid research on dementia and other cognitive-impairment diseases in the brain. The results are detailed in the online version of the journal NeuroImage . In human brains, gray matter represents information processing centers, whereas white matter works to network these processing centers. The results from this study may help explain why men and women excel at different types of tasks, said co-author and neuropsychologist Rex Jung of the University of New Mexico. For example, men tend to do better with tasks requiring more localized processing, such as mathematics, Jung said, while women are better at integrating and assimilating information from distributed gray-matter regions of the brain, which aids language skills. Scientists find it very interesting that while men and women use two very different activity centers and neurological pathways, men and women perform equally well on broad measures of cognitive ability, such as intelligence tests. This research also gives insight to why different types of head injuries are more disastrous to one sex or the other. For example, in women 84 percent of gray matter regions and 86 percent of white matter regions involved in intellectual performance were located in
the frontal lobes, whereas the percentages of these regions in a man’ s frontal lobes are 45 percent and zero, respectively. This matches up well with clinical data that shows frontal lobe damage in women to be much more destructive than the same type of damage in men. Both Haier and Jung hope that this research with someday help doctors diagnose brain disorders in men and women earlier, as well as provide help designing more effective and precise treatments for brain damage.
21.Which of the following statements is true, according to paragraph 1 ?
A. The brain is a monolithic organ.
B. Intellectual ability depends on which part of the brain is used.
C. Intellectual ability varies between men and women.
D. The anatomy of men’ s brains and women’ s brains differ.
22. According to paragraph 2, this discovery is significant because .
A. it is necessary to understand the anatomy of the brain when dealing with diseases affect thought processes
B. it shows that men and women are equally intelligent
C. it shows that men and women are equally intelligent overall, but specialize in
different ways of thinking
D. many diseases of the brain are specific to gender or the other
23. Which of the following statements is true about gray brain matter?
A. It helps put together information from different parts of the brain.
B. It is used for processing i nformation.
C. There is less of it in men’ s brains.
D. There is a direct correlation between the amount of gray brain matter and
24. Which of the following statements is false about white brain matter?
A. Women have more of it than men.
B. It is used for putting together information from different parts of the brain.
C. There is direct correlation between the amount of white brain matter and linguistic ability.
D. The amount of white brain matter is not directly related to overall intelligence. 25. The final paragraph suggests that .
A. men and women are equally intelligent
B. men and women have different frontal lobes
C. head injuries can have varied effects, according to whether a person is male or female
D. the research will be useful to other scientists
Passage 3 (5 points)
So much data indicate the world ’ s progress towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a set of targets adopted by world leaders at the UN more than ten years ago. But the goal-setting exercise has further pitfalls. Too often, the goals are reduced to working out how much money is needed to meet a particular target. Yet the countries that have made most progress in cutting poverty have largely done so not by spending public money, but by encouraging faster economic growth. As Shanta Devarajan,
the World Bank’ s chief economist for Africa, points out, growth does not just make more money available for social spending. It also increases the demand for such things as schooling, and thus helps meet other development goals. Yet the goals, as drawn up, made no mention of economic growth.
Of course growth by itself does not solve all the problems of the poor. It also clear that while money helps, how it is spent and what it is spent on are enormously important. For instances, campaigners often ask for more to be spent on primary education. But throughout the developing world teachers on the public payroll are often absent from school. Teacher-absenteeism rates are around 20% in rural Kenya, 27% in Uganda and 14% in Ecuador.
In any case, money that is allocated for such services rarely reaches its intended recipients. A study found that 70% of the money allocated for drugs and supplies by the Uganda government in 2000 was lost; in Ghana, 80% was siphoned off. Money needs to be spent, therefore, not merely on building more schools or hiring more teachers, but on getting them to do what they are paid for, and preventing resources from disappearingsomewhere between the central government and their supposed destination. The good news is that policy experiments carried out by governments, NGOs, academics and international institutions are slowly building up a body of evidence about methods that work. A large-scale evaluation in Andhra Pradesh in southern India was shown, for example, that performance pay for teachers is three times as effective at raising pupil ’ s test scores as the equivalent amount spent on school supplies.
And in Uganda the government, appalled that money meant for schools was not reaching them, took to publicizing how much was being allotted, using radio and newspaper. Money wastage was dramatically reduced. The World Bank hopes to bring such innovations to the notice of other governments during the summit, if it can. For if the drive against poverty is succeed, it will owe more to such ideas and wider use than to targets set at UN-sponsored summits.
26.According to the text, which of the following merits can’ t we derive from economic growth?
A. It increases other demands such as education.
B. It may help the government to fulfill Millennium Development Goals.
C. Faster growth will lift the poor out of poverty.
D. Economic growth may solve some problems of the poor.
A. to call for governments apply performance pay for teachers
B. to underline the importance of money should be spent on where it is needed
C. to state that the allocated money should get staffs to do what they are paid for
D. to show that African countries have a long way to go before reaching the UN ’ s goalposts
28. According to the author, we should when dealing with allocated money.
A. avoid the leakage of money
B. give the anti-poverty plans the priority
C. promote education to a higher level
D. improve public infrastructure first
29. On which of the following would the author most probably agree?
A. Economic growth does not make more money available for social spending.
B. Money leakage is a big problem that Africa encounters.
C. Millennium Development Goals may involve each country’ s GDP growth.
D. Millennium Development Goals have come to seen as applying to each developing country.
30.We may infer from the last paragraph that .
A. the World Bank plays an important role in helping Uganda fix money leakage
B. money leakage is rampantly flourishing in Uganda
C.Millennium Development Goals may have failed in lifting the poor out of poverty
D. innovative ideas should come before targets set by UN
Passage 4 (5 points)
In the 20th century, all the nightmare-novels of the future imagined that books would be burnt. In the 21th century, our dystopias imagine a world where books are forgotten. To pluck just one, Gary Steynghart’ s novel Super Sad True Love Story describes a world where everybody is obsessed with their electronic Apparat – an even more omnivorous i-phone with a flickering stream of shopping and reality shows and porn – and have somehow come to believe that the few remaining unread paper books left off a rank smell. The book on the book, it suggests, is closing.
The book – the physical paper book – is being circled by a shoal of sharks, with sales down 9 percent this year alone. It’ s being chewed by the e-book. It’ s being gored by the death of the bookshop and the library. And most importantly, the mental space it occupied is being eroded by the thousand Weapons of Mass Destruction that surround us all. It’ s hard to admit, but we all sense it: it is becoming almost physically harder to read books.
In his gorgeous little book The Lost Art of Reading – Why Books Matter in a Distracted Time , the critic David Ulin admits to a strange feeling. All his life, he had taken reading as for granted as eating – but then, a few years ago, he “ become aware, in an apartment full of books, that I could no longer find within myself the quiet necessary to read” . He would sit down to do it at night, as he always had, and read a few paragraphs, then find his mind was wandering, imploring him to check his email, or Twitter, or Facebook. “ What I ’ m struggling with, ” he writes, “ is the encroachment of the buzz, the sense that there ’ s something out there that merits my attention.”
I think most of us have this sense today, if we are honest. If you read a book with your laptop thrumming on the other side of the room, it can be like trying to read in the middle of a party, where everybody is shouting to each other. To read, you need to slow down. You need mental silence except for the words. That’ s getting harder to find.
No, don’ t misunderstand me. I adore the web, and they will have to wrench my Twitter feed from my cold dead hands. This isn’ t going to turn into an antediluvian rant against the glories of our wired world. But there ’ s a reason why that word –“ wired ”– means both “ connected to the internet” and “ high, frantic, unable to concentrate” .
In the age of the internet, physical paper books are a technology we need more, not less. In the 1950s, the novelist Herman Hesse wrote: “The morethe need for entertainment and mainstream education can be met by new inventions, the more the book will recover its
dignity and authority. We have not yet quite reached the point where young competitors, such as radio, cinema, etc, have taken over the functions from the book it can’ t afford to lose. ”W e have now reached that point.
31.By mentioning the work of Gary Steynghart, the author intends to .
A. advocate the idea that reading physical paper books is out of fashion
B. introduce a brand new electronic product even omnivorous than i-phone
C. prove that books will be outweighed by reality shows and porn in the future
D. indicate that books are left out in fictions describing the future world
32. The most significant reason for the falling sales of paper books is that .
A. electronic books are taking over more and more market share of paper books
B. people’ minds don’ t have the space for reading due to all kinds of temptation
C. bookstores are out of business as people prefer to borrowing books from the library
D. people think things on the Internet are more worthy of their attention 33.According to paragraph 3, we can infer that .
A. people are inclined to take reading for granted
B. people’ minds are encroached by the Internet
C. it’ s hard to concentrate on reading nowadays
D. David Ulin’ s book gives readers a strange feeling
34. The explanation of the word “ wired ” probably indicates that .
A. people always misunderstand the functions of internet
B. Internet is partly responsible for the vanishing of paper books
C. people call the internet “ wired world” for a reason
D. Internet will take over the functions of paper books
35. Which of the following will the author most probably agree on?
A. True readers can maintain reading in all kinds of environment, including noisy one.
B. The Internet should be strictly condemned for endangering physical paper books.
C. Physical paper books are facing extreme danger of being replaced by other things.
D. Reading books isn’ t in accordance with the increasing need for entertainment. PARTTHREE (20 points)
Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation must be written on the Answer Sheet.
When a company unexpectedly finds itself losing market share and taking a beating at the hands of its competitors, it ’ s a clear signal that a change is needed. For a variety of reasons, any company can suddenly lose the competitive advantage that it previously enjoyed.
One of the greatest variables in the process, however, is technology, which on one hand makes business more efficient and thus profitable than previously thought possible, but changes at such a rapid pace that few businesses utilize it to its full potential. Those companies that invest heavily in the latest technology of the day may find their machines out dated and obsolete the next year, thus losing the advantage that they hoped to gain, and also a substantial amount of investment money as well.
’ s a game of hit or miss. Because of the uneven and unpredictable pace of progress between technological fields, strategy has been producing positive results for those who employ it, but it is a massively expensive one, limiting its viability to only the largest companies, who are already enjoying many advantages in the market.
Such dynamics make it increasingly difficult for new setup companies to break into established markets, lacking the funding and cash reserves necessary to play the game way as the big boy do. The same technology that keeps the large companies on top, however, can still topple them.
PART FOUR(20 points)
Directions: Translate the following sentences into English. Your translation must be written on the Answer Sheet.
42. 尽管财政收入增速放缓,支出压力加大,但我们要坚持以人为本,持续增加 民生投入。
43. 在基础设施、公共事业等领域,应积极推广政府和社会资本合作模式。 44. 我们要全面推进依法治国,加快建设法治政府、创新政府、廉洁政府和服务 型政府。
PARTFIVE: Writing (25 points)
Directions : The data by National Bureau of Statistics(国家统计局) shows that, in 2013, 131.6 million people age 65 and over lived in China, accounting for 9.7% percent of the total population. The older population grew from 98.6 million in 2004 to 131.6 million in 2013. The growth of the old people affects many aspects of our society, challenging families, business, health care providers, and policymakers, among others, to meet the needs of aging individuals. Please write an essay with no less than 180 words to discuss “ ”
PARTTHREE: Translate the underlined segments into Chinese(20 points) 36.
PART FOUR: Translate the sentences into English. (20 points) 41.
PART FIVE: Writing (25 points)
财政部财政科学研究所 2015年招收攻读博士学位研究生入学考试 英语试题
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