I. Phrase Translation
OEM: 原始设备制造商(Original Equipment Manufacturer)
FTP: 文件传输协议(file transfer protocol)
Shipping Order: 装货单；订舱单
ETA: 预计到达时间(eatimated time of arrival)
Consignee: 收件人；受托人 ?
CPI: 消费物价指数(Consumer price index)
DPI: 每英寸点数（dots per inch);分辨率；解析度
EMF:欧洲货币基金(European Monetary Fund);欧洲货币基金组织
Exchange Rate Mechanism: 汇率机制；汇率体制；外汇兑换体系
ICB：国际竞争性招标(international competitive bidding)
OPEC：石油输出国组织(Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
APEC：亚太经济合作组织(Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation)
CAAC：中国民用航空局(Civil Aviation Administration Of China)
AID：国际开发总署(Agency for International Development)
做好就业、社保等方面的工作: deliver good results in terms of employment, social security, etc./make good work of employment, social security, etc.
促进流通业发展：Promoting the Development of the Circulation Industry
事业单位: public institution
提高出生人口质量：improve the health of newborns；advance the population quality
创新型国家：innovation-oriented country; innovative country
优化经济结构：optimize the economic structure
建设社会主义新农村：building a new socialist countryside
农业政策的稳定性：The stability of agricultural policy
全面建设小康社会：build a moderately prosperous society in all aspects
基层民主：democracy at the grassroots level；grass-roots democracy
社会事业：social undertaking；social programs; social enterprise; social Business
农民工: migrant workers; rural migrant workersII. English to Chinese translation
This book is , inessence, a user’s guide to academic life, conceived for those consiering taking up a career in the traitional academic disciplines – seniors in college, perhaps, or others thinking about going into graduate school – as well as those who have already started out along that path, which is to say, men and women working on a Ph.D and those already with appointments as assistant professors at college or a university. Some of our remarks be of interest to others as well: senior professors who are interested in other perspectives on the academic scene, confused and be wilere parents of junior academics, professional advisors, spouses of graduate students and junior faculty, and laymen interested in learning about the mysteries of academic. Foreign stuents who are thinking abbout acquiring an American graduate school education will certainly profit from reading this book.
Our backgrouns are in the humanities and the social sciences, and our views naturally reflect our own experiences, observations, and what we have learned in the course of our careers. We believe there is sufficient overlap among the various acedemic disciplines to make valid generalizations possible. As teachers, we have often been asked to offer advice over and over again. We’ve written this book in response to what we felt was a real need for information. We chose the format of an extended conversation, much like conversations that we have actually had on many occasions with those who have sought us out to discuss their aspirations, hopes, fears, an problems. The question-and-answer format emphasizes that we are speaking in this book much as we would during our office hours or over coffee in the departmental lounge. Although the questions in boldface are our constructions, for the most part they are questions we’ve often heard or can imagine our readers might want to ask if they could.
– Preface to The Chicago Guide to Your ?Acaemic CareerIII. Write a summary of the following story in 150-200 Chinese character. (20 points)
Beijing’s Focus on Food Prices Ignores Broader Inflation Risk
China took steps Wednesday to control rising prices at the most basic consumer level. But Beijing faces a severe challenge in preventing higher global commodity prices from igniting broader inflation that could threaten China’s streak of powerful economic growth.
With prices rising this autumn for many commodities like sugar and cotton, the country’s cabinet announced on Wednesday evening that it would impose price controls on food, introduce subsidies for the needy and increase the availability of fuel supplies.
So far, the inflation in consumer goods in China has been largely confined to food and energy, and government policy makers want to keep it that way. But avoiding more general inflation could prove difficult.
And in terms of economic diplomacy, the measures announced Wednesday were almost precisely the opposite of the steps the Obama administration and many Western economists have been urging Beijing to take.
China’s broadly measured money supply has surged in the last two years, soaring 54 percent as its central bank has supported the export economy by intervening in currency markets to keep the renminbi artificially low. Considerable cash is also sloshing around the Chinese economy because of two years of extremely heavy lending by state-owned banks to finance a highly successful economic stimulus program that has returned the country to double-digit growth.
But China’s leaders are now clearly worried about the inflationary side effects of those financial policies. The premier, Wen Jiabao, has toured southern China over the last week and was shown on national television late Tuesday night expressing concern about rising food prices and promising that the government would take action.
Zhou Xiaochuan, the governor of the central bank, had said earlier on Tuesday that the amount of money racing through the global economy was putting pressure on emerging economies that want to control inflation. And Yao Jian, a commerce ministry spokesman, said at a press conference on Tuesday that the government would tighten scrutiny of foreign investment so as to prevent too much money from pouring into China as foreign investors seek higher returns than are currently available in the West.
Imposing price controls and other administrative controls on the Chinese economy runs counter to the steps recommended by many Western experts. They have suggested that China should further deregulate its economy, let the renminbi appreciate and otherwise rely on market forces to tame inflation.
The standard policy prescription from Washington has been that China should raise interest rates, as a way to slow investment and prevent the economy from overheating. And American policy makers from President Obama down have argued that if China would let the renminbi rise against the dollar, oil and other commodities would be less expensive in China, helping to tame inflation. But Beijing has resisted, in large part because Washington’s prescribed medicine would reduce the price competitiveness of Chinese exports to the United States and elsewhere.
Still, even as China is zigging when Washington would rather it zag, some corporate economists are cautiously optimistic that China may be able to tame inflation with its approach — for now, at least.
“Given that food prices are spearheading immediate inflationary pressures, supply-side measures should be more effective than rate hikes,” Qu Hongbin, the co-head of Asian economics research at the international bank HSBC, wrote in a research note on Wednesday night. “There’s no need to panic, as Beijing has more than enough effective policy options to combat inflation.”
And yet, while there may be limits to China’s ability to keep a lid on inflation, it is better prepared than many countries to cope with rising world commodity prices. That is because China is self-sufficient in most foods, has an enormous trade surplus and has accumulated copious foreign reserves that reached $2.65 trillion at the end of September.
“There’s no need to panic, as Beijing has more than enough effective policy options to combat inflation” -Co-head of Asian Economics Research, HSBC, Qu Hongbin
In contrast, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization warned on Wednesday that food import bills were up 10 percent this yearfor the world’s poorest countries.
But many economists were surprised by the accelerated inflation in China that the National Bureau of Statistics disclosed in Beijing last week. Overall consumer prices were 4.4 percent higher last monththan a year earlier.
Chinese leaders have repeatedly made clear over the years that fighting inflation is a top priority, because it could fuel social unrest. And they have publicly set a target of not allowing the annual increase in consumer prices to reach 5 percent again. It peaked at 8.5 percent in the spring of 2008.
If food and energy prices are removed from the consumer price index, the prices for everything else are up only 1.3 percent from a year earlier, according to the government. But that is not necessarily a reassuring measure, some economists suggest.
Chinese and Western economists worry that the Chinese price index may underestimate inflation separate from food and energy. The Chinese index has longstanding methodological problems — like measuring apartment rents but not the cost of buying and living in an apartment, which has soared in recent years.
While climbing food and energy prices are a global problem, they particularly affect lower-income countries like China, where such necessities claim a far larger share of household incomes than in more affluent nations. China’s consumer price index, which is based mainly on urban spending patterns, assumes that groceries represent a third of a family’s spending.
That is extremely high by Western standards. And it shows how far China must still go to create the kind of broad-based consumer society that American officials recommend and that Chinese leaders say they want to adopt in the long term in place of their current export-led model. In the United States, groceries represent only 8 percent of the Consumer Price Index.
The State Council, China’s cabinet of ministers, decided on Wednesday that it would stabilize prices for grain, oil, sugar and cotton in particular, according to a statement on a government Web site. The State Council also said that the government would make sure that more diesel reached filling stations, to fuel trucks, and that utility power stations had ample supplies of coal.
The high prices and relative scarcity of diesel fuel have resulted in part from its use by factories, which have been burning it in backyard generators as power companies have cut back electricity generation to meet national targets for limiting energy consumption.
Meanwhile, utilities have struggled to buy enough coal because the government requires coal mines to sell it to power companies at low, regulated prices. The mines, of course, prefer to sell their coal at higher prices on the open market.
Last week, in another move against inflation, Beijing ordered commercial banks to put more of their assets in low-yield accountsat the central bank. The measure, an increase in the so-called reserve requirement, was meant to cool a frenzy of lending over the last two years that has priced urban real estate beyond the reach of most working-class families.
Liang Huoqiao, a 22-year-old plastics worker, said in an interview earlier this year in Guangzhou in southern China that his pay was rising 10 percent a year, to around $300 a month. But his entire annual pay would be enough to buy only about two square meters of an apartment, or 21.5 square feet.
So he planned to buy a car as soon as possible, and worry about a home later.
Summer in Western Europe
Light-hearted as he seems,a traveler is in fact under great stress. Though on vacation, he is nevertheless subject to the restraint of time. He can do whatever he likes on the trip, but he has to keep the expenditure within the limits of his pocket. Wherever he goes, he has to take with him his cumbersome hand luggage. He faces the most horrible possibility of losing his money and credentials, which will reduce himself to a pauper of unknown background. And, besides, he can never be sure of the weather.
That’s what I’m like now. I’ve traveled all the way from the southern tip of Spain to the northern tip of England, experiencing a variety of climates until I’ve become apathetic to the elements. I’m now sitting in a medieval castle turned hotel, writing an article for my readers. The day is just dawning. In Central Scotland, there lies under the gray wet clouds a wild wooded region, beyond which a green mountain stands faintly visible. In the chilly air of the early morning, I have to be dressed in a woolen sweater while sitting on a stone wall one foot on thickness. But I need, in addition, an outer garment to keep me warm in case I come down the spiral staircase—the intestines of the castle—to take a stroll along an unfrequented path down the mountain slope in search of secluded places of quiet beauty.
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