I. Phrase Translation
trade deficit ：贸易逆差
bill of lading：提单
达人秀： Got Talent/talent show
次贷危机：subprime mortgage crisis
朝核会议：six-party talk on North Korea nuclear issue
《国富论》：The Wealth of Nations
节能减排：energy saving and emission reduction
以人为本:?Put People First
ASEAN:?东南亚国家联盟（东盟）（Association of Southeast Asian Nations）
CAT: ?计算机辅助翻译（Computer Aided Translation）
CNN:?美国有线电视新闻网(Cable News Network)
HBS:?哈佛商学院(Harvard Business School)
HEC: 港口进入管制（Harbor Entry Control)
MFNs: 最惠国（most favored nations)
IMF:?国际货币基金组织(International Monetary Fund)
IPO:?首次公开募股(initial public offering)
UNCTAD:?联合国贸易和发展会议(United Nations Conference on Trade and Development)
UNESCO:?联合国教科文组织(United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)II. Passage translationSection A English to Chinese
Is the world headed for a food crisis? India, Mexico and Yemen have seen food riots this year. What’s the cause for these shortages and price hikes? Expensive oil, for the most part. The United Nations food and Agriculture Organization （FAO） reported that, at nearly $100 a barrel,the price of oil has sent the cost of food imports skyrocketing this year. Add in escalating crop prices, the FAO warned, and a direct consequence could soon be an increase in global hunger —and, as a consequence, increased social unrest. What’s more, worldwide food reserves are at their lowest in 35 years, so prices are likely to stay high for the foreseeable future.
On the demand side, one of the key issues is biofuels. Biofuels, made from food crops such as corn, sugar cane, and palm oil, are seen as easing the world’s dependence on gasoline or diesel. But when crude oil is expensive, as it is now, these alternative energy sources can also be sold at market-competitive prices, rising steeply in relation to petroleum. With one-quarter of the US corn harvest in 2010 diverted towards biofuel production, the attendant rise in cereal prices has already had an impact on the cost and availability of food. Critics worry that the gold rush toward biofuels is taking away food from the hungry. Leaders in the biofuel industry respond that energy costs are more to blame for high food prices than biofuels. “Energy is the blood of the world, so if oil goes up then other commodities follow,” Claus Sauter, CEO of German bioenergy firms Verbio said. Others argue that cleaner-burning biofuels could help stem the effects of climate change, another factor identified by the FAO as causing food shortages. Analysts note that scientists believe climate change could be behind recent extreme weather patterns, including catastrophic floods, heat waves and drought. All can diminish food harvests and stockpiles. But so can market forces.Section B Chinese to English
Part 1: Vocabulary and Grammar. （30 P）
01. The Space Age ____ in October 1957 when the first artificial satellite was launched by the Soviet Union.?
A. initiated??? B. originated??? C. embarked??? D. commenced
02. John said that he didn’t quite ____ and asked me to repeat what I had said.?
A. snatch up??? B. summon up??? C. catch on??? D. watch out
03. When he tried to make a ____, he found that the hotel that he wanted was completely filled because of a convention.?
A. complaint??? B. claim??? C. reservation??? D. decision
04. A budget of five dollars a day is totally ____ for a trip round Europe.?
A. inadequate??? B. incapable??? C. incompatible??? D. invalid
05. In our highly technological society, the number of jobs for unskilled workers is ____.?
A. shrinking??? B. obscuring??? C. altering??? D. constraining
06. The fuel of the continental missile is supposed to be ___ by this device.?
A. ignited??? B. lighted??? C. fired??? D. inspired
07. I worked so late in the office last night that I hardly had time ____ the last bus.?
A. to have caught??? B. to catch??? C. catching??? D. having caught
08. Frankly speaking, your article is very good except for some ____ mistakes in grammar.?
A. obscure??? B. glaring??? C. trivial??? D. rare
09. As it turned out to be a small house party, we ____ so formally.?
A. needn’t dress up??? B. did not need have dressed up
C. did not need dress up??? D. needn’t have dressed up
10. Certain species disappeared or became ____ as new forms arose that were better adapted to the Earth’s changing environment.?
A. feeble??? B. extinct??? C. massive??? D. extinguished
11. I apologize if I ____ you, but I assure you it was unintentional.?
A. offend??? B. had offended??? C. should have offended??? D. might have offended
12. Franklin D. Roosevelt argued that the depression stemmed from the American economy’s ____ flaws.?
A. underlining??? B. vulnerable??? C. vulgar??? D. underlying
13. Although a teenager, Fred could resist ____ what to do and what not to do.?
A. to be told??? B. having been told
C. being told??? D. to have been told
14. I am afraid that you have to alter your ____ views in light of the tragic news that has just arrived.?
A. indifferent??? B. distressing??? C. optimistic??? D. pessimistic
15. Greater efforts to increase agricultural production must be made if food shortage____ avoided.?
A. is to be??? B. can be
C. will be??? D. has been
16. Stop shouting! I can’t hear the football ____.?
A. judgment??? B. interpretation??? C. commentary??? D. explanation
17. Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true ____ it comes to classroom tests.?
A. before??? B. as??? C. since??? D. when
18. Every member of society has to make a ____ to struggle for the freedom of the country.?
A. pledge??? B. warranty??? C. resolve??? D. guarantee
19. David tends to feel useless and unwanted in a society that gives so much ____ to those who compete well.?
A. prestige??? B. regime??? C. superiority??? D. legislation
20. The terrorists might have planted a bomb on a plane in Athens, set to ____ when itarrived in New York.?
A. go off??? B. get off??? C. come off??? D. carry off
21. The younger person’s attraction to stereos cannot be explained only ____ familiarity with technology.?
A. in quest of??? B. by means of??? C. in terms of??? D. by virtue of
22. By signing the lease we made a ___ to pay a rent of $150 a week.?
A. conception??? B. commission??? C. commitment??? D. confinement
Part 2: Identify Stylistic Problems. （18 P）
01. By the time Julia Roberts was 23, she had won two academy award nominations, she had also become the world’s most popular female actress.?
A. run on??? B. comma splice??? C. correct??? D. fragment
02. Since then, Roberts has appeared in fourteen films. Most recently, “My Best Friend’s Wedding” and “The Conspiracy Theory.”
A. fragment??? B. choppy??? C. correct??? D. comma splice
03. She didn’t plan to become an actress. She wanted to be six feet tall. She wanted to be a veterinarian. She wanted to be happy and make others happy.?
A. fragment??? B. comma splice??? C. choppy??? D. correct
04. Although Julia Roberts has had much professional success. In spite of her trouble with several failed relationships.?
A. fragment??? B. choppy??? C. comma splice??? D. correct
05. Julia Roberts lives in Manhattan, not far from the apartment she once shared with her sister in Greenwich Village.?
A. fragment??? B. comma splice??? C. correct??? D. run on
06. She came to New York when she was seventeen. Because her older sister lived there and she was influenced by her sister.?
A. fragment??? B. run on??? C. choppy??? D. comma splice
07. Roberts was raised in Georgia. Her parents ran a theater school there. Her sister and brother are also actors. The family was always short of money.?
A. fragment??? B. choppy??? C. correct??? D. run on
08. When Julia was four years old, her parents divorced. After eighteen years of marriage.?
A. fragment?? B. run on??? C. choppy??? D. correct
Part 3: Reading Comprehension （30 P）
Many United States companies have, unfortunately, made the search for legal protection from import competition into a major line of work. Since 1980 the United States International Trade Commission （ITC） has received about 280 complaints alleging damage from imports that benefit from subsidies by foreign governments. Another 340 charge that foreign companies “dumped” their products in the United States at “less than fair value.” Even when no unfair practices are alleged, the simple claim that an industry has been injured by imports is sufficient grounds to seek relief.?
Contrary to the general impression, this quest for import relief has hurt more companies than it has helped. As corporations begin to function globally, they develop an intricate web of marketing, production, and research relationships. The complexity of these relationships makes it unlikely that a system of import relief laws will meet the strategic needs of all the units under the same parent company.?
Internationalization increases the danger that foreign companies will use import relief laws against the very companies the laws were designed to protect. Suppose a United States-owned company establishes an overseas plant to manufacture a product while its competitor makes the same product in the United States. If the competitor can prove injury from the imports—and that the United States Company received a subsidy from a foreign government to build its plant abroad—the United States Company’s products will be uncompetitive in the United States, since they would be subject to duties.?
Perhaps the most brazen case occurred when the ITC investigated allegations that Canadian companies were injuring the United States salt industry by dumping rock salt, used to device roads. The bizarre aspect of the complaint was that a foreign conglomerate with United States operations was crying for help against a United States company with foreign operations. The “United States” company claiming injury was a subsidiary of a Dutch? conglomerate, while the “Canadian” companies included a subsidiary of a Chicago firm that was the second-largest domestic producer of rock salt.?
01. The passage is chiefly concerned with ______.?
A. arguing against the increased internationalization of United States corporations
B. warning that the application of laws affecting trade frequently has unintended consequences
C. demonstrating that foreign-based firms receive more subsidies from their governments than United States firms receive from the United States government
D. advocating the use of trade restrictions for “dumped” products but not for other imports
02. It can be inferred from the passage that the minimal basis for a complaint to the International Trade Commission is which of the following??
A. A foreign competitor has received a subsidy from a foreign government.?
B. A foreign competitor has substantially increased the volume of products shipped to the United States.?
C. A foreign competitor is selling products in the United States at less than fair market value.?
D. The company requesting import relief has been injured by the sale of imports in the United States.?
03. The last paragraph performs which of the following functions in the passage??
A. It summarizes the discussion thus far and suggests additional areas of research.?
B. It presents a recommendation based on the evidence presented earlier.?
C. It cites a specific ease that illustrates a problem presented more generally in the previous paragraph.?
D. It introduces an additional area of concern not mentioned earlier.?
04. The passage warns of which of the following dangers??
A. Companies in the United States may receive no protection from imports unless they actively seek protection from import competition.?
B. Companies that seek legal protection from import competition may incur legal costs that far exceed any possible gain.?
C. Companies that are United States owned but operate internationally may not be eligible for protection from import competition under the laws of the countries in which their plants operate.
D. Companies that are not United States owned may seek legal protection from import competition under United States import relief laws.?
05. According to the passage, the International Trade Commission is involved in which of the following??
A. Investigating allegations of unfair import competition
B. Granting subsidies to eompanies in the United States that have been injured by import competition
C. Recommending legislation to ensure fair trade
D. Identifying international corporations that wish to build plants in the United States
Since the late 1970s, in the face Of a severe loss of market share in dozens of industries, manufacturers in the United States have been trying to improve productivity—and therefore enhance their international competitiveness—through cost-cutting programs. （Cost-cutting here is defined as raising labor output while holding the amount of labor constant.）?
However, from 1978 through 1982, productivity—the value of goods manufactured divided by the amount of labor input—did not improve; and while the results were better in the business upturn of the three years following, they ran 25 percent lower than productivity improvements during earlier, post-1945 upturns. At the same time, it became clear that the harder manufactures worked to implement cost-cutting, the more they lost their competitive edge.?
With this paradox in mind, I recently visited 25 companies; it became clear to me that the cost-cutting approach to increasing productivity is fundamentally flawed. Manufacturing? regularly observes a “40, 40, 20” rule. Roughly 4o percent of any manufacturing-based? competitive advantage derives from long-term changes in manufacturing structure （decisions about the number, size, location, and capacity of facilities） and in approaches to materials.Another 40 percent comes from major changes in equipment and process technology. The final 20percent rests on implementing conventional cost-cutting. This rule does not imply that cost-cutting should not be tried. The well-known tools of this approach—including simplifying jobs and retraining employees to work smarter, not harder—do produce results. But the tools quickly reach the limits of what they can contribute.?
Another problem is that the cost-cutting approach hinders innovation and discourages creative people. As Abernathy’s study of automobile manufacturers has shown, an industry can easily become prisoner of its own investments in cost-cutting techniques, reducing its ability to develop new products. And managers under pressure to maximize cost-cutting will resist innovation because they know that more fundamental changes in processes or systems will wreak havoc with the results on which they are measured. Production managers have always seen their job as one of minimizing costs and maximizing output. This dimension of performance has until recently sufficed as a basis of evaluation, but it has created a penny-pinching, mechanistic culture in most factories that has kept away creative managers.?
Every company I know that has freed itself from the paradox has done so, in part, by developing and implementing a manufacturing strategy. Such a strategy focuses on the manufacturing? structure and on equipment and process technology. In one company a manufacturing strategy that allowed different areas of the factory to specialize in different markets replaced the conventional cost-cutting approach; within three years the company regained its competitive advantage. Together with such strategies, successful companies are also encouraging managers to focus on a wider set of objectives besides cutting costs. There is hope for manufacturing, but it clearly rests on a different way of managing.?
01 The author of the passage is primarily concerned with ______.?
A. summarizing a thesis
B. recommending a different approach
C. comparing points of view
D. making a series of predictions
02 It can be inferred from the passage that the manufacturers mentioned in paragraph 1 expected that the measures they implemented would ______.?
A. encourage innovation
B. keep labor output constant
C. increase their competitive advantage
D. permit business upturns to be more easily predicted
03. The primary function of the first paragraph of the passage is to ______.?
A. present a historical context for the author’s observations
B. anticipate challenges to the prescriptions that follow
C. clarify some disputed definitions of economic terms
D. summarize a number of long-accepted explanations
04. The author refers to Ahernathy’s study most probably in order to ______.?
A. qualify an observation about one rule governing manufacturing
B. address possible objections to a recommendation about improving manufacturing competitiveness
C. support an earlier assertion about method of increasing productivity
D. suggest the centrality in the Unit States economy of a particular manufacturing industry
05. The author’s attitude toward the culture in most factories is best described as ______.?
A. cautious??? B. critical??? C. disinterested??? D. respectful
It can be argued that much consumer dissatisfaction with marketing strategies arises from an inability to aim advertising at only the likely buyers of a given product. There are three?
groups of consumers who are affected by the marketing process. First, there is the market segment—people who need the commodity in question. Second, there is the program target—people in the market segment with the “best fit” characteristics for a specific product.?
Lots of people—may need trousers, but only a few qualify as likely buyers of very expensive designer trousers. Finally, there is the program audience—all people who are actually exposed?
to the marketing program without regard to whether they need or want the product.?
These three groups are rarely identical. An exception occurs in cases where customers for a particular industrial product may be few and easily identifiable. Such customers, all?
sharing a particular need, are likely to form a meaningful target, for example, all companies with a particular application of the product in question, such as high-speed fillers of?
bottles at breweries. In such circumstances, direct selling （marketing that reaches only the program target） is likely to be economically justified, and highly specialized trade media exist
to expose members of the program target—and only members of the program target—to the marketing program.?
Most consumer-goods markets are significantly different. Typically, there are many rather than few potential customers. Each represents a relatively small percentage of potential sales.
Rarely do members of a particular market segment group themselves neatly into a meaningful program target. There are substantial differences among consumers with similar demographic characteristics.
Even with all the past decade’s advances in information technology, direct selling of consumer goods is rare, and mass marketing—- a marketing approach that aims at a wide audience -remains the only economically feasible mode. Unfortunately, there are few media that allow the marketer to direct a marketing program exclusively to the program target. Inevitably, people get exposed to a great deal of marketing for products in which they have no interest and so they become annoyed.?
01. The passage suggests which of the following about highly specialized trade media??
A. They should be used only when direct selling is not economically feasible.?
B. They can be used to exclude from the program audience people who are not part of the program target.?
C. They are used only for very expensive products.?
D. They are rarely used in the implementation of marketing programs for industrial products.?
02. The passage suggests which of the following about direct selling??
A. It is used in the marketing of most industrial products.?
B. It is often used in cases where there is a large program target.?
C. It is not economically feasible for most marketing programs.?
D. It is used only for products for which there are many potential customers.?
03. The author mentions “trousers” in paragraph 1 most likely in order to ______.?
A. make a comparison between the program target and the program audience
B. emphasize the similarities between the market segment and the program target
C. provide an example of the way three groups of consumers are affected by a marketing program
D. clarify the distinction between the market segment and the program target
04. “the product in question” in Line 5, Paragraph 2 means ______.?
A. “the product in the previous question”
B. “the product under discussion”
C. “the product on sale”
D. “the product in doubt”
05. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is true for most consumer-goods markets??
A. The program target and the program audience are not usually identical.?
B. The program audience and the market segment are usually identical.?
C. The market segment and the program target are usually identical.?
D. The program target is larger than the market segment.?
Most economists in the United States seem captivated by the spell of the free market. __16__. A price that is determined by the seller or, for that matter, established by anyone other than the aggregate of consumers seems pernicious. __17__. In fact, price-fixing is normal in all industrialized societies because the industrial system itself provides, as an effortless consequence of its own development, the price-fixing that it requires. Modern industrial planning requires and rewards great size. Hence, a comparatively small number of large firms will be competing for the same group of consumers. That each large firm will act with consideration of its own needs and thus avoid selling its products for more than its competitors charge is commonly recognized by advocates of free-market economic theories. __18__. Each large firm will thus avoid significant price-cutting, because price-cutting would be prejudicial to the common interest in a stable demand for products. Most economists do not see price-fixing when it occurs because they expect it to be brought about by a number of explicit agreements among large firms; it is not.?
Moreover, those economists who argue that allowing the free market to operate without interference is the most efficient method of establishing prices have not considered the economies of non-socialist countries other than the United states. These economies employ intentional price-fixing, usually in an overt fashion. Formal price-fixing by cartel and informal price-fixing by agreements covering the members of an industry are common-place. __19__, the countries that have avoided the first and used the second would have suffered drastically in their economic development. There is no indication that they have.?
Socialist industry also works within a framework of controlled prices. In the early 1970’s, the Soviet Union began to give firms and industries some of the flexibility in adjusting prices that a more informal evolution has accorded the capitalist system. __20__; rather, Soviet firms have been given the power to fix prices.?
A. But each large firm will also act with full consideration of the needs that it has in common with the other large firms competing for the same customers?
B. Consequently, nothing seems good or normal that does not accord with the requirements of the free market?
C. Economists in the United States have hailed the change as a return to the free market. But Soviet firms are no more subject to prices established by a free market over which they exercise little influence than are capitalist firms
D. Accordingly, it requires a major act of will to think of price-fixing （the determination of prices by the seller） as both “normal” and having a valuable economic function?
E. Were there something peculiarly efficient about the free market and inefficient about price-fixing-o.?
Part 4: Writing. （30 P）
Write an English essay of 250-300 words describing Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs and analyze this model with ONE example. Your writing will be assessed for language, format, structure and content.
A. 雅、风、诗??? B. 风、雅、颂??? C. 风、雅、歌??? D. 雅、风、经
A. 《左传》??? B. 《战国策》??? C. 《国语》??? D. 《苟予》
A. 《汉书》??? B. 《霍光传》??? C. 《史记别传》??? D. 《史记后传》
A. 《古诗十六首》??? B. 《古诗十七首》??? C. 《古诗十八首》??? D. 《古诗十九首》
A. 《红楼梦》??? B. 《聊斋志异》??? C. 《老残游记》??? D. 《儒林外史》
A. 《孔已己》??? B. 《药》??? C. 《狂人日记》??? D. 《呐喊》
A. 《云游》??? B. 《风凰涅巢》??? C. 《女神之再生》??? D. 《地球，我的母亲》
A. 《上海屋檐下》??? B. 《脚步集》??? C. 《中国的西北角》??? D. 《画梦录》
A. 《家》??? B. 《骆驼祥子》??? C. 《边城》??? D. 《子夜》
A. 商朝??? B. 夏朝??? C. 西周??? D. 秦朝
A. “开元盛世”??? B. “康乾盛世”??? C. “贞观之治”??? D. “变革时期”
A. 墨子??? B. 韩非??? C. 庄子??? D. 荀子
B. 欧阳询、苏 轼、黄庭坚和柳公权
C. 羊 欣、柳公权、黄庭坚和赵孟頫
D. 苏 轼、欧阳询、柳公权和赵孟頫
A. 写意画和重彩画??? B. 重彩画和水描画??? C. 工笔画和壁画??? D. 工笔画和写意画
A. 《易经》??? B. 《黄帝内经》??? C. 《伤寒杂病论》??? D. 《内经》
A. 李白??? B. 刘伶??? C. 杜甫??? D. 陆羽
A. 英格兰??? B. 苏格兰??? C. 威尔士??? D. 北爱尔兰
A. 骚塞??? B. 华兹华斯??? C. 柯勒律治??? D. 拜伦
A. 弥尔顿??? B. 斯宾塞??? C. 邓恩??? D. 乔叟
A. 英格兰人、苏格兰和爱尔兰人??? B. 威尔士、苏格兰和爱尔兰人
C. 英格兰、威尔士人和爱尔兰人??? D. 英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士人
A. 赛文河??? B. 泰晤士河??? C. 克莱德河??? D. 莱茵河
A. 罗密欧与朱莉叶??? B. 麦克白??? C. 哈姆雷特??? D. 仲夏夜之梦
A. 福克斯??? B. 富兰克林??? C. 查尔斯??? D. 克伦威尔
A. 民法修正案??? B. 权利法案??? C. 刑法修正案??? D. 民诉法修正案
A. 缅因州??? B. 新罕布什尔州??? C. 佛蒙特州??? D. 卡罗莱纳州
? A. 阿拉斯加的中部??? B. 夏威夷的中部??? C. 科罗拉多的中部??? D. 怀俄明的中部
A. 福克纳??? B. 奥康纳??? C. 伍尔夫??? D. 韦尔蒂
A. 言论自由??? B. 宗教自由??? C. 集会自由??? D. 反政府游行自由
B. 国亡身殒今何有. 只留离骚在世问
A. 各自独立的??? B. 日趋同质的??? C. 丰富多彩的??? D. 互相排斥的
A. 萨缪尔逊??? B. 托宾??? C. 索洛??? D. 罗宾逊
A. 英国威斯敏斯特大教堂??? B. 意大利米兰大教堂
C. 法国凡尔赛宫??? D. 德国克隆大教堂
? A. 圆颅派??? B. 骑士派??? C. 托利派??? D. 辉格派
?? A. 民权情愿??? B. 权利法案??? C. 宪法第一修正案??? D. 刑法修正案
真题来源：互联网 ? ?词语翻译答案由翻译硕士真题网提供