I. Phrase Translation
GM food:?转基因食品（genetically modified food）
CPI:?消费物价指数（Consumer Price Index)
GDP:?国内生产总值（Gross Domestic Product）
NBA:?全美篮球协会（National Basketball Association） ?
NASDAQ:?全国证券交易商自动报价系统协会（National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation）
HSBC:?汇丰银行(Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation)
exchange rate: 汇率
multilateral trade talks：多边贸易谈判
民工:?migrant worker;?a labourer working on a public project
九五折:?a five percent discount; a 95 percent charge
泥石流:?debris flow; detritus stream
金砖四国:?the BRICs; the BRIC countries
人头税:?poll tax;?capitation tax
（联合国）安理会:?(UN) security council
上市公司:?listed company;?public company
董事会:?Board of Directors;?board
第六次全国人口普查: the?sixth nationwide population censusII. Passage translationSection A English to Chinese
Before the invention and diffusion of writing, translation was instantaneous and oral; persons professionally specializing in such work were called interpreters. In predominantly or wholly literate communities, translation is thought of as the conversion of a written text in another, though the modern emergence of the simultaneous translator or professional interpreter at international conferences keeps the oral side of translation very much alive.
The translation of poetry, especially into poetry, presents very special difficulties, and the better the original poem, the harder the translator’s task. This is because poetry is, in the first instance, carefully contrived to express exactly what the poet wants to say. Second, to achieve this end, the poet calls forth all the resources of the language in which he is writing, matching the choice of words, the order of words, and grammatical constructions, as well as phonological features peculiar to the language in metre, perhaps supplemented by rhyme, assonance, and alliteration. The?available?resources?differ?from?language?to?language.
At the other end of the translator’s spectrum, technical prose dealing with internationally agreed scientific subjects is probably the easiest type of material to translate, because cultural unification (in this respect), lexical correspondences, and stylistic similarity already exist in this type of usage in the languages most commonly involved, to a higher degree than in other fields of discourse.
Translation on the whole is an art, not a science. Guidance can be given and general principles can be taught, but after that it must be left to the individual’s own feeling for the two languages concerned. Almost inevitably, in a translation of a work of literature something of the author’s original intent must be lost; in those cases in which the translation is said to be a better work than the original, an opinion sometimes expressed about the English writer Edward Fitzgerald’s “translation” of The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám, one is dealing with a new, though derived, work, not just a translation. The Italian epigram remains justified：Traduttore traditore “The translator is a traitor.” ————-Excerpts from The New Encyclopaedia BritannicaSection B Chinese to English
上海海事大学?2011-2013 翻译硕士 真题下载：百度云
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