上海外国语大学2013年翻译硕士MTI真题与答案

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I. Phrase Translation

1. Great Depression:? 大萧条(美国经济大萧条时期)

2. IMF:?国际货币基金组织(international monetary fund)

3. QE3:?第三轮量化宽松政策?(Quantitative Easing 3)

4. America pivot to Asia: 美国重返亚太;美国战略转移到亚洲

5. The 18th CPC Congress:中国共产党第十八次代表大会 ?(The 18th Congress?Communist Party of China)

6. Gaza Strip: 加沙地带

7. CNN: 美国有线电视新闻网络(Cable News Network)

8. ASEAN: 东南亚国家联盟(Association of South East Asian Nations); 东盟

9. Capitol Hill:? (美国华盛顿)国会山; [口语]美国国会[亦称作 the Hill]

10. Euro Zone Crisis: 欧元区危机;欧元危机

II.?短语汉译英?(15’)

科学发展观:Scientific Outlook on Development

独立自主和平外交政策:an independent foreign policy of peace

钓鱼岛争端:The Diaoyu Islands dispute

可持续发展:sustainable development;Sustainability

中等收入陷阱:Middle Income trap(指当一个国家的人均收入-per capita income-达到中等水平,由于不能顺利实现经济发展方式-economic development model-的转变,导致经济增长动力不足,最终出现经济停滞的一种状态)

长江三角洲:the Yangtze River Delta; the Yangtze Delta

纳米技术:nanotechnology

小康社会:a moderately prosperous society

II. Passage translationSection A English to Chinese

Broken BRICs: Why the Rest Stopped Rising

By?Ruchir Sharma

November/December 2012

The Rising of the Rest

Over the past several years, the most talked-about trend in the global economy has been the so-called rise of the rest, which saw the economies of many developing countries swiftly converging with those of their more developed peers. The primary engines behind this phenomenon were the four major emerging-market countries, known as the BRICs: Brazil, Russia, India, and China. The world was witnessing a once-in-a-lifetime shift, the argument went, in which the major players in the developing world were catching up to or even surpassing their counterparts in the developed world.

These forecasts typically took the developing world’s high growth rates from the middle of the last decade and extended them straight into the future, juxtaposing them against predicted sluggish growth in the United States and other advanced industrial countries. Such exercises supposedly proved that, for example, China was on the verge of overtaking the United States as the world’s largest economy-a point that Americans clearly took to heart, as over 50 percent of them, according to a Gallup poll conducted this year, said they think that China is already the world’s?“leading”?economy, even though the U.S. economy is still more than twice as large (and with a per capita income seven times as high).

As with previous straight-line projections of economic trends, however-such as forecasts in the 1980s that Japan would soon be number one economically-later returns are throwing cold water on the extravagant predictions. With the world economy heading for its worst year since 2009, Chinese growth is slowing sharply, from double digits down to seven percent or even less. And the rest of the BRICs are tumbling, too: since 2008, Brazil’s annual growth has dropped from 4.5 percent to two percent; Russia’s, from seven percent to 3.5 percent; and India’s, from nine percent to six percent.

None of this should be surprising, because it is hard to sustain rapid growth for more than a decade. The unusual circumstances of the last decade made it look easy: coming off the crisis-ridden 1990s and fueled by a global flood of easy money, the emerging markets took off in a mass upward swing that made virtually every economy a winner. By 2007, when only three countries in the world suffered negative growth, recessions had all but disappeared from the international scene. But now, there is a lot less foreign money flowing into emerging markets. The global economy is returning to its normal state of churn, with many laggards and just a few winners rising in unexpected places. The implications of this shift are striking, because economic momentum is power, and thus the flow of money to rising stars will reshape the global balance of power. (节选自Foreign Affairs 全文网址:http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/138219/ruchir-sharma/broken-brics?page=show?)

Section B Chinese to English

美中经济与安全评估委员会星期三出具了一份156页的报告,对中国公司的在美投资做了充满警惕的描述。它宣称来自中国的大型投资给美国制造的经济和安全风险就像“潜在的特洛伊木马”,这样的比喻颇令我们震惊。

一个简单的反应是:美国在华投资规模要大得多,很多公司同美国政府“关系密切”,按照上述报告提供的逻辑,中国境内现在已经有了多少“潜在的特洛伊木马”呢?

中国人这些年居然还睡得着觉,中国各地政府仍在积极对外招商引资,他们大概都该立刻警觉起来,抓美国在中国的“特洛伊木马”。

重要的是,中国没有“美中经济与安全评估委员会”这种专门拆两国经济合作台的机构设置,即使有哪个组织“管闲事”拿出类似的报告,告诉中国人微软和IBM等等都可能是潜在的“颠覆中国”的机构,写这些报告的人一定会在舆论场上被唾沫淹没。

中美的互视心态的确在出现历史性转变,过去时时刻刻担心美国“亡我之心不死”的中国人,开始变得或者豁达了,或者盲目乐观了。而原来什么都不在乎的美国人,突然有了草木皆兵的紧张,不仅中国“间谍”多多,而且在美的中资公司也都像是“鬼鬼祟祟”。

我们的确搞不清楚,这些警惕里面有多少成分是美国人的真实担忧,有多少成分是那些管事的美国人“装蒜”,那些奇奇怪怪的莫须有罪名或许只是他们搞经济保护的幌子。

全球化进程不断对国际分工的格局施加新压力,长期处在产业链最上游的美国渐渐有了危机感。过去帮助美欧跨国企业完成最佳性价比制造环节的中国公司,如今有一些开始了技术创新竞争以及投资竞争,它们被认为触动了美欧利益最肥厚的那一块,对一些国家的核心竞争力构成潜在威胁。

这样的情绪同星期三的那份报告有多少直接联系我们不清楚,但它们的确在西方世界、包括在美国精英中蔓延。我们可以体谅它们的出现,但为平息它们,决不能以中国的单方面让步做代价。如果我们纵容这些情绪肆无忌惮地转化成行动,那将意味着世界自由贸易体系倒下一张关键的多米诺骨牌,意味着中国坐视中资企业被肆意欺侮,坐视国家利益被随意侵犯。

美国需要克制在竞争和挑战面前的惊慌,克制用“安全手段”帮助本国公司解困的邪门歪道。美国需要以诚实的态度应对新兴国家的产业升级,美国如此强大,回旋空间充裕,美国要想永保世界第一位置,必须靠真功夫,而不能靠损人利己的投机取巧。

作为GDP总量刚到美国一半的发展中国家,要对美国苦口婆心讲如何正确竞争的道理,这真让我们意外,甚至都不好意思。美国实在不应耍赖皮,它有堂堂正正的资本,它应当像个超级大国的样子。

无独有偶,美国国际贸易委员会星期三决定对中国光伏产品征收反补贴和反倾销关税,中国的报复措施必将出现。如果说美国真的在“衰落”,本文说到的两个委员会决不是这种“衰落”的阻止者,而是推波助澜者。

作为GDP总量刚到美国一半的发展中国家,要对美国苦口婆心讲如何正确竞争的道理,这真让我们意外,甚至都不好意思。美国实在不应耍赖皮,它有堂堂正正的资本,它应当像个超级大国的样子。▲ ( 原文摘自《环球时报》社评:http://opinion.huanqiu.com/editorial/2012-11/3258999.html? 英文报导见其英文网站:http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/743332.shtml)

参考译文:An American committee, the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission (UCESRC) issued a 156-page report Wednesday, which gives detailed descriptions of Chinese companies’ investments in the US. It claims the security and economic risks posed by China’s large-scale investments as a “potential Trojan horse,” which shocked us.

The US’ investment in China is of a much larger scale. Many companies have close ties with Washington. If we use the logic in the report, there are a great number of “Trojan horses” in China.??If so, Chinese people should be wary of these “Trojan horses,” as local governments in China are busy courting foreign investment.

China doesn’t have an organization like the UCESRC, which does nothing but destroy opportunities for mutual economic cooperation. Even if there was such a commission which issued a similar report, saying that Microsoft and IBM may overthrow China, those who wrote the report would be condemned.

The mentality with which China and the US see each other is changing. The Chinese, who have worried about US ambitions of subjugating China, have become positive, if not blindly so, while the Americans, who had no fear in the past, have become oversensitive, speculating as to the motives of Chinese companies.

We don’t know whether these concerns are genuine, or whether the accusations are just a disguise for trade protectionism.

Globalization has affected the international distribution of industries. The US, which used to be at the top of the chain, is gradually feeling a sense of crisis. Chinese companies, which used to help their Western counterparts lower costs and boost efficiency, began to compete with them in terms of technology and investment. They are considered to be taking away the very interests of the West and posing a threat to their core competitiveness.

Such a mentality is spreading throughout the West. China cannot make one-sided sacrifices to eliminate it. If these suspicions became actions, we would expect that the free trade environment would be affected. If the US wants to remain the world’s No.1, it can only rely on its real strength rather than opportunism.

On Wednesday, the US International Trade Commission decided to issue anti-dumping and countervailing duty orders against China’s photovoltaic industry. China will certainly respond. If the US is indeed in decline, then these two commissions are accomplices to this.

?

翻译硕士英语

今年的这科目比以往简洁,完型、阅读都是同一篇文章,Reuters的报道,网址如下:

http://en-maktoob.news.yahoo.com/column-making-most-diversity-chrystia-freeland-212258042.html

I. Cloze (30’ 15×2’)

Fill in the blanks with one appropriate word.

NEW YORK, Nov 15 (Reuters) – For America, 2012 will go down in history as the year of the Latinos, the blacks, the women and the gays. That rainbow coalition won President Barack Obama his second term. This triumph of the outsiders is partly due to America’s changing demographics. And it is not just the United States that is becoming more diverse. Canada is, too, 1. as is much of Europe.

That is why it is worth thinking hard about how to make 2. diverse teams effective, and how people 3. who straddle two cultural worlds can succeed. Three academics, appropriately enough a diverse group based in Asia and America, have been doing some provocative research 4. that suggests that our ability to comfortably integrate our different identities – or not – is the 5. key.

In “Connecting the Dots Within: Creative Performance and Identity Integration,” Chi-Ying Cheng of Singapore Management University, Jeffrey Sanchez-Burks of the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan, and Fiona Lee, 6. also at the University of Michigan, argue that ethnic minorities and women in male-dominated professions 7. are most creative when they have found a way to believe that their “multiple and 8. conflicting social identities are compatible.”

“We tried to see how people who have to deal with 9. seemingly in-conflict culture or gender identities cope,” Cheng told me. Their 10. conclusion was that people who have found a way to reconcile their two identities – Asian-Americans, for 11. example, or women who work in male-dominated jobs like engineering – are the best 12. at finding creative solutions to problems.

“Those who see their identities as 13. compatible, they are better at combining ideas from the two identities to come up with something new,” Cheng said. “14. While those who also share these two social identities, 15. but see them as being in conflict, they cannot come up with new ideas.”

Cheng, Sanchez-Burks and Lee devised a research strategy to probe this issue that you do not need a Ph.D. to appreciate: They asked Asian-Americans to invent new fusion cuisine dishes using both typically Asian and typically American ingredients, and they asked female engineers to design products geared specifically to women. In both cases, people who were at peace with their dual identities performed better.” Asian-Americans who had higher bicultural integration could create more creative recipes, and they believed it was possible to come up with more recipes,” Cheng said. “By contrast, Asian-Americans who feel their two identities are in conflict cannot come up with as many creative recipes.”

Cheng has her own experience of being a minority. She is from Taiwan but went to graduate school in the United States; she is a woman but has taught in the male-dominated environment of graduate business schools. She does not minimize the challenge of coming to terms with this sort of diversity.

“People who have high identity integration, it is not that they are more easygoing. It is that they find peace between the two different worlds,” Cheng said. “It is not that easy.

Pretending doesn’t work. There has to be real understanding and integration between the two worlds. They find a way for the two worlds to coexist inside a person.”

This academic work is a useful prism for understanding the man who may be the world’s most prominent integrator of two potentially conflicting identities: President Obama. He has gained admission to what used to be the most exclusive white club of all, the White House, while remaining patently at ease with his black identity.

As Cheng advises, Obama does not ignore the complexities of straddling these two worlds: He governs with an acute awareness of the particular challenges a black skin poses for the man Americans still like to describe as the leader of the free world. But the president is also deeply at ease with his various identities, a psychological state that may help him use them to powerful effect – as in the election campaign, when he rallied pretty much all Americans who think of themselves as different.

The conclusions of Cheng, Sanchez-Burks and Lee suggest a tantalizing follow-up question: How can we achieve the personal integration these scholars have identified as crucial to making a virtue of diversity? Further research by Cheng offers one answer: “You can integrate your identities if you have positive bicultural experiences. The macrosystem can influence the microsystem.”

In other words, if the world around us tells us our dual identities are compatible, we will believe that, and act accordingly. If female engineers work in a company that treats their gender as a virtue, they will do better. If Asian-Americans live in a community that celebrates both aspects of their identity, they will be more effective.

America’s rainbow coalition won at the ballot box this month, but in other settings the nation has become a little weary of diversity-cheering movements like multiculturalism and even explicit feminism. Cheng’s work suggests that cynicism may be misplaced. Diversity can work, but we have to work at it.

II. Reading the passage and answer following questions. (30’)

1. According to the author, how can a minority person succeed in the U.S.? (6’)

2. Why does Cheng consider Barack Obama successful? (6’)

3. Elaborate on Cheng’s saying “The macrosystem can influence the microsystem.” (8’)

4. What does the author allude to in the phrase “rainbow coalition”? (8’)

III. Writing (40’)

Comment on how to succeed in an increasingly diverse world? 500 words.

汉语百科知识

一、百科知识(15’)??顺序可能是乱的

1. 仰韶文化属于哪个历史时期?

A.?旧石器时代??B.?新石器时代??C.??D.?青铜时代

2.?下列哪项属于中国古代语言学是?

A.?文字学??B.?词汇学??C.?语法学??D.?修辞学

3.?《道德经》的主要内容是?

A.?仁和义??B.?德行??C.??? ?D.?事物和世界的本质规律

4.?阴阳学说源自

天地??B.日月??C.男女??D.?

7.?兵家在《汉书.艺文志》里被列为哪一档?

三教??B.九流? ?C.十家? ??D.九流十家之外

8. “白马非马”属于以下哪一类?

A.?诡辩论??B.???C. ?? ?D.逻辑学

9.?以下哪个词不属于佛家用语?

A.?自由??B.?宇宙??C.?现在??D.?世界

10.?古代的“七曜”指七颗星星,它们属于?

A.?恒星??B.?行星??C.?卫星??D.?恒星、行星、卫星

11.?“以柔克刚”是哪个流派的观点?

A.?道家??B.?儒家??C.?杂家??D.?墨家

12.?“大辩不言”是谁提出来的?

A. 惠施??B.?公孙龙? ??C.?孟子? ?D.?庄子

13.?中国历史上首位署名诗人?

A.?左丘明? ?B.?屈原? ?C.? ?? ? D.?曹操

14.?心学是谁提出来的?

A.?老子??B.?王守仁??C.?程颐??D.?朱熹

15.?剧本《屈原》是谁创作的?

A.?鲁迅??B.?郭沫若??C.???D.??

二、成语解释 (35’=7’*5)

1.?杯弓蛇影

2.?形影相吊

3.?味如鸡肋

4.?乐不思蜀

5.?阳春白雪

三、应用文写作?(40’)

写一篇说明文,根据下列图标,写一篇有关象形文字演化过程的说明文。(考题未规定字数)

四、大作文?(60’)

阅读下列材料,以《“双十一”小议》为题写一篇论说问,不少于800字。

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