四川大学2016年博士研究生英语入学考试试题

点赞(0) 反对(0) 本站小编 福瑞考研网 2017-01-10 18:47:04 阅读(0)

四川大学2016年博士研究生英语入学考试试题

考生请注意:

1. 本试题共5大题,共11页,请考生注意检杏.考试时间为180分钟

2. 1-70题答案请填写在机读卡相应处,否则不给分。

3. 翻译和作文题答在答题纸上,答在试题上不给分。书写要求字迹消楚、工整。 I. Reading Comprehension (30%; one mark each)

Directions: Read the following six passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing [A], [B], [C], or [D]. Write your answers on the Answer Sheet.

Passage One

When a person begins a mediated or immediate encounter, he already stands in some kind of social relationship to the others concerned, and expects to stand in a given relationship to them after the particular encounter . This, of course, is one of the ways in which social contacts are geared into the wider society. Much of the activity occurring during an encounter can be understood as an effort on everyone’s part to get through the occasion and all the unanticipated and unintentional events that can cast participants in an undesirable light, without disrupting the relationships of the participants. And if relationships are in the process of change,the object will be to bring the encounter to a satisfactory close without altering the expected course of development. The perspective nicely accounts, for example, for the little ceremonies of greeting and farewell which occur when people begin a conversational encounter or depart from one. Greetings provide a way of showing that a relationship is still what it was at the termination of the previous co-participation, and, typically, that this relationship involves sufficient suppression of hostility for the participants temporarily to drop their guards and talk. Farewells sum up the effect of the encounter upon the relationship and show what the participants may expect of one another when they next meet. The enthusiasm of greetings compensates for the weakening of the relationship caused by the absence just terminated, while the enthusiasm of farewells compensates the relationship for the harm that is about to be done to it by separation.

It seems to be a characteristic obligation of many social relationships that each of the members guarantees to support a given face for the other members in given situations. To prevent disruption of these relationships, it is therefore necessarily for each member to avoid destroying the others’ face. At the same time, it is often the person’s social relationship with others that leads him to participate in certain encounters with them, where incidentally he will be dependent upon them for supporting his face. Furthermore, in many relationships, the members come to share a face, so that in the presence of third parties an improper act on the part of one member becomes a source of acute embarrassment to the other members. A social relationship, then, can be seen as a way in which the person is more than ordinarily forced to trust his self-image and face to the tact and good conduct of others.
1 .The last word of the first sentence, namely “ends' is most likely[A] a noun, meaning “purposes” or “objectives”

[B] a verb, meaning “comes to a finish”

[C] a postpositional adjective, meaning “finishing”

[D] an adjective, meaning “purposeful”

2. According to the author, if any unexpected difficulties occur in a social contact,

B .

[A] the relationships between the participants break up

[B] those who participate will be in an unintentional event

[C] all participants would try to maintain their relationships

|D] the participants will certainly get through an activity

3. Which of the following is NOT an idea of the author? C

[A] The participants hope their relationship would be the same as they met last.

[B] Greetings are just as important as farewells in a social encounter.

[C] Before every greeting there is always sufficient hostility to suppress.

[D] If their relationship changes, the participants want it to change as they hoped.

4. The last sentence of the second paragraph means that . A

[A] one’s self-image is dependent on how others behave

[B] face and self-image are two different kinds of relationships

[C] social relationship is something that is forced on all participants

[D] to get along well with others is a process of giving each other face

5. The best title for this passage may well be . A

[A] Face and Social Relationship [B] How to Conduct Socially

[C] Greetings and Farewells [D] Conversational Sociology

Passage Two

(Tips:出现人名字的地方用笔圈出来,数字用笔圈出来)

The poet William Blake wrote in the early nineteenth century: “Great things are done when men and mountains meet.” Great things indeed were done on Mount Everest in May of 1996. Also poignant things, foolish things, deadly things: Hundreds of climbers from eleven different expeditions were on the mountain ---- thirty-one near the summit ---- when a freakish and fierce-some storm blew in. Eight climbers perished, the highest one-day death toll since the first expedition tried to reach the top of the world’s tallest peak in 1921.

Adventurers have always sought challenges: deeper jungles, wider oceans, newer worlds. But mountains have been special. Perhaps it’s their size, their power, their resistance to conquest. In Patrick Meyers’s play K2, a marooned climber on the Himalaya peak that gives the play its name delivers this line: “Mountains are metaphors.” And so they are. Climbers search not just for summits but also for themselves. They reach up to reach in.

That helps explain why Everest has been enveloped by “Mountain Madness,”
the name of a Seattle company that offers guided tours of the peak for about $65,000 (plus airfare to Nepal). New technology and equipment have also helped: lighter gear, warmer clothing, better radios and telephones. And the adventure can be shared, practically in real time, with Internet browsers around the world.

But the community of high-mountain explorers now is gripped by soul-searching and second-guessing. Everest, after all, is not a theme peak. Some of the dead were experienced guides who lost their lives trying to save less agile amateurs. Said Mark Bryant, editor of Outside Magazines:“Some of us have been asking: Is it right that an average climber can order an ascent of Everest out of a catalog?” An Australian mountaineer, Tim McCartney-Snape, told the Associated Press: “Some things should remain sacred, and Everest is one of them. Even the strongest and toughest have found it can be extremely difficult just existing at that altitude, without other people depending on you.

On Everest, dependency can lead to heroism and to tragedy. One frostbitten amateur, Seaborne Weathers of Dallas, was plucked from a rocky ledge at 22,000 feet by a Nepalese army helicopter — an act of incredible bravery. And Rob Hall, a guide who had climbed Everest several times, stayed on its slope with a dying customer. After learning they were hopelessly trapped, Hall managed to place a satellite telephone call to his pregnant wife, Jan, in New Zealand. “Hey, look,” he told her, “don’t worry about me.” At that moment, Hall remembered Harold, the character in K2 who muses: “Understanding has no meaning. Holding on, just holding on, that has meaning. Like Harold, he knew the mountain was still a mountain. Still a goal. Still a dream. And he couldn’t hold on. Rob Hall died before rescuers could reach him.

6. Which of the following statements best describes the author’s point of view?

[A] Amateurs should not be encouraged to climb Mount Everest.

[B] Guided tours of Mount Everest have become a source of enormous profits.

[C] In the past, Mount Everest has made heroes out of ordinary men and women.

[D] Mount Everest should remain a metaphor to be talked about.

7. The sentence “They reach up to reach in” may be best paraphrased by “ ”

[A] To know the inherent meaning of a mountain, one needs to climb up to the top

[B] In conquering the mountain, one finds a proof of oneself

[C] Mountaineers must climb upward in order to climb inside it

[D] One needs to climb up to the top to see why a mountain is metaphorical

8. .

[A] Mountain climbing can have a live report simultaneously

[B] Mountaineers can be located instantly during their climbing

[C] New technology significantly reduces risks and dangers in mountain climbing {D} It is more dangerous to have someone depending on you during mountain climbing

9. In the last paragraph, Harold’s saying “Understanding has no meaning” means [A] determination is more vital than thinking

[B] persistence and action require reasoning

[C] one should avoid misunderstanding the situation
[D] it is meaningless to think in mountaineering

10. Most likely, the author of this passage is .

. [A] a historian [B] a mountaineer

[C] a tourist guide [D] a reporter

Passage 3

The Hertz Corporation, the U.S. Air Force, Hyatt Hotels Corporation, the City of Dallas, and the Neiman-Marcus Group, Inc., have one thing in common----all have purchased the services of Feedback Plus. Feedback Plus is an agency that dispatches professional shoppers who pose as customers. These “mystery” shoppers visit the client’s business, purchase products or services and report back to the client on the quality of service they receive. The City of Dallas hired Feedback Plus to see how car-pound employees treat citizens picking up their cars. The Air Force is using professional shoppers to assess customer service at their on-base supply stores. Banks, hospitals, and public utilities are also hiring mystery shoppers. Vickie Henry, chief executive of Feedback Plus, notes that many similar firms compete for client’s business, and service really differentiates one firm from another. Although Henry has a database of 8,800 people who serve as professional shoppers, she sometimes assumes the role of mystery shopper herself. During a recent visit to an upscale women's store, she observed the type of customer service most companies attempt to avoid. None of the many salespeople on the sales floor said hello when she entered the store. When she removed a skirt from a clothing rack, none of the salespeople approached her. Finally, several minutes after entering the store, Henry approached a salesperson and asked to use the dressing room. Needless to say, service at this firm did not receive high marks from Feedback Plus.

 1/4    1 2 3 4 下一页 尾页
发表评论 已经有0条评论 查看全部评论

关键字

相关信息