考试吧:2018年考研《英语一》真题及答案

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Text 3

31、[答案][B] It failed to pay due attention to patients’ rights。

[解析]细节题。根据题干中的NHS, DeepMind和agreement回文定位第一段第四句“It is against that background that the information commissioner, has issued her damning verdict against the Royal Free hospital trust under the NHS, which handed over to DeepMind the records of 1.6 million patients in 2015 on the basis of a vague agreement which took far too little account of the patients’ rights and their expectations of privacy”。根据a vague agreement which took far too little account of the patients’ rights and their expectations of privacy这一部分的语义信息,说明NHS与DeepMind之间的协议没有充分考虑到病人的权利与隐私。这句话的言外之意就是协议未能充分关注病人的权利。故确定答案为选项B,其中failed to是took far too little account的同义改写。

32、[答案][C] necessary adjustments。

[解析]细节题。根据题干中的NHS trust, 以及Denham’s verdict回文定位第二段第二句“The NHS trust has mended its ways。” 根据第二句的语义信息,NHS trust针对Denham’s verdict已经调整了其与DeepMind的协议内容,故通过同义替换,可确定正确答案为C。

33、[答案][D] the value of data comes from the processing of it。

[解析]推理题。根据题干,此题定位在第二段最后一句but之后的转折句。“But this distinction misses the point that it is processing and aggregation, not the mere possession of bits, that gives data value”。 这种区分忽视了一个点:是处理和收集赋予数据意义,而不是拥有数据。 选项中的 “processing”和原文中的“processing”原词复现。 选项中的“the value of data”对应原文中的“data value”。因此,D项为正确答案。

34、[答案][D] the monopoly of big data by tech giants。

[解析]细节题。根据题干此题定位在文中最后一段的第四句。“What matters is that they will belong to a private monopoly which developed them using public resources。”重要的是这些进步属于一个私人垄断企业,而私人垄断企来使用公共资源进行研发。而这正真正的担忧所在。因此,选项D为正确答案, the monopoly of big data by tech giants对应原文中的a private monopoly。

35、[答案][B] cautious

[解析]态度题。本题考查作者对本文主题“将人工智能应用于医疗健康”的态度。根据顺序性原则定位在最后一段。该段倒数第三句话指出“我们目前依然处于这一改革的前期,并且任何小的选择都会对未来产生深远的影响”,其中“still”一词,以及“small”(小)和“gigantic”(巨大的)对比,都体现出了作者对待整个事件是小心谨慎的态度,因此[B] cautious为正确答案。

Text 4

36、[答案][B] its rigid management

[解析]根据题干判断本题考查因果细节。第一段的前三句都是有关USPS的具体数字,属于细节信息。第四句出现many reasons很多原因。紧接着下面就有fundamentally根本原因是, 所以定位在第一段的最后一句。然后分析这个长难句,USPS 处在squeeze between 1 and 2,中,1是technological change, 2是structure。 2的structure后定语从句:denies management flexibility 对应选项B: rigid management。

[干扰项分析]:选项A,budget文中未有涉及。 选项C,虽然有提到technological ,原文technological change 后的定语从句说的是:技术改革降低需求,并没有提到cost成本问题。选项D,the withdrawal of bank support 银行支持撤销了,原文并没有提及银行支持,直接排除。

37、[答案][A] the interference from interest groups

[解析] 根据题干due to,判断本题考查因果细节。根据题干关键词:USPS fails to modernize 定位到原文第二段最后一句,在这句前leaving,留下,导致这个结果,往前找原因,前一句提到reform legislation, 而且这句前还有this is why,只要找到代词this指代就可以判断选项。代词往前推,根据这句主干interest groups exerts pressure on Congress选择选项A,interference 对应 exert pressure on。

[干扰项分析]选项B,the inadequate funding from Congress,原文虽然有提到Congress国会,the aspect of status quo get protected, 国会保护USPS,并没有提及inadequate funding基金不足。选项C,the shrinking demand for postal service 邮政需求缩减,文中没有提及。选项D, the incompetence of postal unions 邮政工会的不作为。文章有提到工会,但是只提他们是属于Interest groups,并没有提到无作为。

38、[答案][A] removing its burden of retiree health care

[解析] 因果细节题。根据38题题干The long-standing complaint by the 。。。。回文定位到第3段,最后一句:“ The latter step would largely offset the financial burden of annually pre-funding retiree health care, thus。。。。” 。再根据题干中“ can be addressed by” 即:通过哪种方式解决,此处为解题要点,通过哪种方式来解决,前后明显为结果与途径的关系,即可理解为因果关系。文章此句后半句正是题干,thus前半句为答案The latter step would largely offset the financial burden of annually pre-funding retiree health care。与 A。 B 。 C 。D 四个选项匹配后,正确答案为 A removing its burden of retiree health care。

39、[答案][C] discontent

[解析]根据题干可以判断本题为观点态度题。回文定位到最后一段。题干“the author seems to view legislators with”, 具体定位到最后一段倒数第2句:“ The emerging。。。。。is a sign that legislators are getting frightened。。。。。。。” 再根据题干,问作者最终态度,本段最后一句,转折句是作者最终的态度:“ It is not, however, a sign that they’re getting serious about。。。。” , 即作者认为他们并没有认真对待。所以此处作者态度为否定。匹配A B C D 四个选项 只有C discontent( 不满)为负向信息,所以为正确答案。

40、[答案][D] The Postal Service Needs more than a Band-Aid

[解析]根据题干特征词“best title”,这是一道主旨题。根据前四道题问的主题,第一道题和第二道题是USPS出现了问题,并分析原因,第三道题给出解决方法,第四道题提到作者对于这个方法的态度,即提出问题—分析问题—解决问题,并在最后给出作者对这个解决方案的评价。根据这个文章框架,首先A选项“USPS开始错过了它的好时光”,这只是提出问题,相对片面;B选项“USPS:不要动我的奶酪”, 这是拒绝解决问题的态度,不符合文章的写作思路;C选项“USPS:慢性病需要快方法”,这个chronic和quick都没有在文中提到;D选项“USPS需要的不仅仅是权宜之计”,这说的其实作者对于解决方案的评价,在文章最后一段。这段最后结尾有But,有however, “it[指代前文讲的方法] is not a sign……”,对此作者表示否定态度。所以D选项为正确答案。

Part B

41、[答案] [E] The Eisenhower Executive Office Building(EEOB) commands a…

[解析] E段首先介绍EEOB的全称,对全文进行概述提出话题,可选为41题答案。同时,从给定选项C第一句提到the State, War,and Navy Building…,the在此特指,可以作为另一一个线索,在E选项中最后一句,复现了the State, War,and Navy Building。。。。故41题答案选E。

42、[答案][G] The history of the EEOB began long before its…

[解析]C选项最后一句谈到了many historic events(建筑内呈现了历史事件),而G选项第一句提到了the history of the EEOB…(EEOB的历史。。。),意思一致,承上启下,故42题答案选G。

43、[答案][A] In December of 1869, Congress appointed…

[解析]确定G后,根据G选项最后一句,。。。the demolition of the State Department Building(谈到拆除the State Department Building), 而A选项中谈到了select a site and prepare plans and cost estimates for a new State Department,建立一个新的State Department Building,前后意思顺接,故43题答案选A。

44、[答案][B] Completed in 1875, the State Department’s south wing…

[解析] 根据给定的F段,首句是段落大意,该句提到了。。。as the building slowly rose wing by wing(该建筑逐翼展开)。 而B选项第一句谈到了。。。south wing was the first to be occupied(首先坐落在南翼),然后在B选项最后一句又谈到。。。moved into the east wing(之后又移至东翼)。 先在F段总起,再在B段中分说,前后对应,故44题答案选B。

45、[答案][D] Many of the most celebrated national figures…

[解析] B段结尾处谈到了where elaborate wall…decorated the office of the Secretary(这些精美的墙。。。。装饰了秘书处的办公室),而D段第一句提到了。。。that have taken place within the EEOB’s granite walls(历史事件在这些EEOB的墙上呈现), the wall原词复现,两句话意思一致,故45题答案选D。

Section III Translation

(46) By the date of his birth Europe was witnessing the passing of the religious drama, and the creation of new forms under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy。

[题目考点]代词还原;并列结构

[句子结构]and并列两个句子,主干分别为:…Europe was witnessing the passing … and the creation of …;of the religious drama为定语修饰the passing;under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy为状语

[重点词汇]witness 见证 religious宗教的 drama戏剧 incentive刺激

[参考译文]莎士比亚出生之时,欧洲宗教戏剧正在消逝,在古典悲剧和戏剧的推动下,很多新的戏剧形式应运而生。

(47) no boy who went to a grammar school could be ignorant that the drama was a form of literature which gave glory to Greece and Rome and might yet bring honor to England。

[题目考点]定语从句;宾语从句;并列结构

[句子结构]主句主干:no boy… could be ignorant that…。who引导的定语从句修饰boy, that引导为形容词ignorant的宾语从句,which引导的定语从句修饰a form of literature, gave…and might bring honor…为先行词a form of literature的并列谓语结构。

[重点词汇]grammar school 文法学校 ignorant忽视 literature文学 glory 荣耀

[参考译文]任何文法学校的学生都知道戏剧是一种文学形式,它曾给希腊和罗马带来荣耀,也许同样会给英格兰带来殊荣。

(48) But the professional companies prospered in their permanent theaters, and university men with literary ambitions were quick to turn to these theaters as offering a means of livelihood。

[题目考点]并列句

[句子结构]并列句主干分别为:…companies prospered … and university men …were quick to…
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