2017考研英语:非谓语动词用法比较(四)

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四、不定式和分词作状语时的区别

1.不定式作状语通常表示目的或结果,表示目的时前面可用in order或so as,以示强调。表示结果时常用于too…to…, enough to do…, only to…等结构中。如:

I saved every cent in order to buy a car. 为了买车,我积攒着每一分钱。

The temperature is high enough to change water into steam. 湿度很高足以使水变为水蒸气。

2.作原因状语时,过去分词与-ing形式被动一般式可以互换。但还是单独使用过去分词的为多。如:

Written (Being written) very well, the novel sells well. 这部小说写得很好,很畅销。

3.作方式或伴随状语时常用过去分词,习惯上不用-ing形式被动一般式即不用being done形式。如:

Many parents were walking about the zoo, followed by their children. 很多父母正在公园里走着,后面紧跟着自己的孩子。

4.作时间状语用时,过去分词如同时表示被动和动作完成,常可换用-ing分词的被动完成式;过去分词如果只表被动,不表完成,则不可。如:

Read many times (=Having been read many times), the story seems much easier.

读过多遍,这个故事似乎变得更容易了。(表示被动和完成)

Seen from on the top of the hill, the park looks more beautiful.

从山顶上看,这个显得更加美丽。(表被动)

5.与否定词not连用时多用-ing形式。如:

Not being included, I have to find another chance. 我没被录用,只好再等。

6.使用分词或分词短语作句子的状语时,有一条原则必须遵守,即分词或分词短语的逻辑主语应当与句子的主语一致,否则句子就是不正确的或是不正规的语言。如:

【误】Found him angry, I began to tell jokes.因为found与I 在这个句子中不能构成被动,应为Finding him angry, I began to tell jokes.

【误】Looking around, there was no one nearby. Look around 的逻辑主语不应是no one,故本句不成立,就改为Looking around, I found there was no one nearby.

7.有些约定俗成的分词或分词短语作状语,尽管它们与句子的主语不一致(即不存在主谓关系),也被认为是正确的。这种分词短语作状语解释整个句子。如:

Generally speaking, girls are more interested in literature than boys. 一般说来,女孩子比男孩更喜欢文学。

Considering the weather, the sports meet will be put off. 考虑到天气,运动会将会被推迟。

Judging from her accent, she must come from Arabian countries. 从她的口音看,她准来自阿拉伯国家。
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