(2018)考研英语阅读理解精读100篇(高分版)5

本站小编 免费考研网 2018-11-25 (0)次
摘要 : Unit 22 TEXT ONE Although it symbolises a bright idea, the traditional incandescent light bulb is a dud. It wastes huge amounts of electricity, radiating 95% of the energy it consumes as heat rather than light. Its life is also relatively short, culminating in a dull pop as its filament fr...

Unit 22


TEXT ONE


Although it symbolises a bright idea, the traditional incandescent light bulb is a dud. It wastes huge amounts of electricity, radiating 95% of the energy it consumes as heat rather than light. Its life is also relatively short, culminating in a dull pop as its filament fractures. Now a team of researchers has devised a light bulb that is not only much more energy-efficient—it is also expected to last longer than the devices into which it is inserted. Moreover, the lamp could be used for rear-projection televisions as well as general illumination.

The trick to a longer life, for light bulbs at least, is to ensure that the lamp has no electrodes. Although electrodes are undeniably convenient for plugging bulbs directly into the lighting system, they are also the main reason why lamps fail. The electrodes wear out. They can react chemically with the gas inside the light bulb, making it grow dimmer. They are also difficult to seal into the structure of the bulb, making the rupture of these seals another potential source of failure.

Scientists working for Ceravision, a company based in Milton Keynes, in Britain, have designed a new form of lamp that eliminates the need for electrodes. Their device uses microwaves to transform electricity into light. It consists of a relatively small lump of aluminium oxide into which a hole has been bored. When the aluminium oxide is bombarded with microwaves generated from the same sort of device that powers a microwave oven, a concentrated electric field is created inside the void.

If a cylindrical capsule containing a suitable gas is inserted into the hole, the atoms of the gas become ionised. As electrons accelerate in the electric field, they gain energy that they pass on to the atoms and molecules of the gas as they collide with them, creating a glowing plasma. The resulting light is bright, and the process is energy-efficient. Indeed, whereas traditional light bulbs emit just 5% of their energy as light, and fluorescent tubes about 15%, the Ceravision lamp has an efficiency greater than 50%.

Because the lamp has no filament, the scientists who developed it think it will last for thousands of hours of use—in other words, for decades. Moreover, the light it generates comes from what is almost a single point, which means that the bulbs can be used in projectors and televisions. Because of this, the light is much more directional and the lamp could thus prove more efficient than bulbs that scatter light in all directions. Its long life would make the new light ideal for buildings in which the architecture makes changing light bulbs complicated and expensive. The lamps' small size makes them comparable to light-emitting diodes but the new lamp generates much brighter light than those semiconductor devices do. A single microwave generator can be used to power several lamps.

Another environmental advantage of the new design is that it does not need mercury, a highly toxic metal found in most of the bulbs used today, including energy-saving fluorescent bulbs, fluorescent tubes and the high-pressure bulbs used in projectors. And Ceravision also reckons it should be cheap to make. With lighting accounting for some 20% of electricity use worldwide, switching to a more efficient system could both save energy and reduce emissions of climate-changing greenhouse gases.

1. The function of electrodes in the traditional lamp is to _____.

[A] transform electricity into light through chemical reaction with the gas inside the bulb

[B] seal the rupture of the structure of the bulb so as to prevent potential failure

[C] connect the glass housing with the lighting device

[D] seal the bulb into the lighting system to ensure the bulb's normal function

2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the design principle of the new lamp?

[A] No electricity is conducted into the lamp from outside.

[B] The energy is created by the collision of the electrons and atoms and molecules of the gas.

[C] The light is created by the ionized atoms of the gas.

[D] The electricity is created as the atoms of the gas are ionized.

3. The new type of lamp can be energy-efficient because of the following reasons except that _____.

[A] it generates scatter light

[B] the light it generates is more concentrated

[C] only microwave acts as the power supplier for the lamp

[D] the light it generates is more bright

4. The new light is ideal for some special buildings mentioned in the passage because _____.

[A] the new light bulbs are not so complicated nor expensive

[B] the new light bulbs are more advantageous than the semiconductor devices

[C] the new light bulbs can last for a much longer time

[D] the new light bulbs make light-bulbs changing easier and cheaper

5. Which one of the following is NOT the advantage of this new lamp?

[A] It is environment friendly.

[B] It can be made at a lower cost.

[C] It is safer for people.

[D] It is multi-purpose.





文章剖析


这篇文章介绍了一种新发明的灯泡。第一段讲述传统白炽灯泡的缺点和新灯泡的优点;第二段讲述白炽灯泡不耐用的原因;第三段讲述一家英国公司发明的新灯泡;第四段讲述这种新灯泡的原理;第五段和第六段讲述新灯泡的优点。





词汇注释


incandescent adj. 白炽的

dud n. (口语)不中用的东西

filament n. 灯丝

electrode n. 电极

ionise v. 电离

plasma n. 等离子体

diode n. 二极管

toxic adj. 中毒的,有毒的





难句突破


① When the aluminium oxide is bombarded with microwaves generated from the same sort of device that powers a microwave oven, a concentrated electric field is created inside the void.

主体句式:..., a concentrated electric field is...

结构分析:这是一个复合句,when引导的是时间状语从句;在该从句中,that引导的定语从句用来修饰device。

句子译文:当氧化铝在真空中被微波撞击时(产生该微波的装置和微波炉的一样),在氧化铝的小洞里就形成了一个密集的电场。

② As electrons accelerate in the electric field, they gain energy that they pass on to the atoms and molecules of the gas as they collide with them, creating a glowing plasma.

主体句式:..., they gain energy...

结构分析:这是一个复合句,as引导的是时间状语从句;主句中,that引导的是定语从句,用来修饰energy;as引导的是时间状语从句;现在分词结构creating...作状语。

句子译文:随着电场中电子运动的加速,电子与气体的原子和分子结合之后,把传递到原子和分子上的能量聚集起来,制造出一片光亮的等离子体。





题目分析


1. The function of electrodes in the traditional lamp is to _____.

[A] transform electricity into light through chemical reaction with the gas inside the bulb

[B] seal the rupture of the structure of the bulb so as to prevent potential failure

[C] connect the glass housing with the lighting device

[D] seal the bulb into the lighting system to ensure the bulb's normal function

1. 传统电灯中电极的作用是 _____。

[A] 利用灯泡中的气体,通过化学反应将电转化成光

[B] 封住灯泡结构中的裂缝,便于预防可能出现的损坏

[C] 将玻璃外壳和发光体联系起来

[D] 将灯泡封入发光系统,以保证灯泡的正常功能

答案:B 难度系数:☆☆

分析:细节题。根据第二段:Although electrodes are undeniably convenient for plugging bulbs directly into the lighting system, they are also the main reason why lamps fail. 说明电极的作用是将灯泡和照明系统联系起来。因此,答案为B。

2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the design principle of the new lamp?

[A] No electricity is conducted into the lamp from outside.

[B] The energy is created by the collision of the electrons and atoms and molecules of the gas.

[C] The light is created by the ionized atoms of the gas.

[D] The electricity is created as the atoms of the gas are ionized.

2. 关于新灯泡的设计原理,下列哪个陈述是正确的?

[A] 电流不是从外部引入电灯的。

[B] 能量是通过气体中的电子、原子和分子的碰撞产生的。

[C] 光是靠气体中的电离化的原子产生的。

[D] 电是在气体中的原子电离化时产生的。

答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆

分析:细节题。根据第四段:As electrons accelerate in the electric field, they gain energy that they pass on to the atoms and molecules of the gas as they collide with them, creating a glowing plasma. 即新灯泡没有电流从外部引入,而是电子和气体中的原子及分子结合产生的。因此,选项A符合题意。

3. The new type of lamp can be energy-efficient because of the following reasons except that _____.

[A] it generates scatter light

[B] the light it generates is more concentrated

[C] only microwave acts as the power supplier for the lamp

[D] the light it generates is more bright

3. 新灯泡是节能的,是因为下列除 _____ 外的其他原因。

[A] 它产生分散的光

[B] 它产生的光更为集中

[C] 只有微波作为其能量的来源

[D] 它产生的光更加明亮

答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆☆

分析:细节题。根据第五段,新灯泡之所以节能是因为其灯光更定向,产生的光是从一点发出的,也很明亮,一个微波发生器就可以为几个灯泡提供能量了。而选项A的表述只是意味着可以用于放映机和电视。因此,只有选项A是不正确的理由。

4. The new light is ideal for some special buildings mentioned in the passage because _____.

[A] the new light bulbs are not so complicated nor expensive

[B] the new light bulbs are more advantageous than the semiconductor devices

[C] the new light bulbs can last for a much longer time

[D] the new light bulbs make light-bulbs changing easier and cheaper

4. 新灯泡是文中提到的一些特殊建筑的理想照明设施,因为 _____。

[A] 新灯泡没那么复杂而且廉价

[B] 新灯泡比那些半导体装置具有更大的优势

[C] 新灯泡可以持续用很长时间

[D] 新灯泡可以使得更换灯泡更简单且廉价

答案:D 难度系数:☆☆

分析:细节题。根据第六段:Its long life would make the new light ideal for buildings in which the architecture makes changing light bulbs complicated and expensive. 也就是说,因为一些建筑物设计得很特别,所以更换灯泡复杂且昂贵。这种灯泡寿命长,不用经常更换,因此适用于这种建筑。因此,选项D符合题意。

5. Which one of the following is NOT the advantage of this new lamp?

[A] It is environment friendly.

[B] It can be made at a lower cost.

[C] It is safer for people.

[D] It is multi-purpose.

5. 下列哪项不是新灯泡的优点?

[A] 新灯泡环保。

[B] 新灯泡生产成本低。

[C] 新灯泡更安全。

[D] 新灯泡是多功能的。

答案:D 难度系数:☆☆

分析:根据最后一段:Another environmental advantage of the new design is that it does not need mercury, a highly toxic metal found in most of the bulbs used today, including energy-saving fluorescent bulbs, fluorescent tubes and the high-pressure bulbs used in projectors. 可见,因为不需要水银,所以新灯泡环保而且安全,其造价也很低。而选项D的内容文中没有说明,因此,答案为D。





参考译文


虽然传统的白炽灯泡一直被认为是个伟大的发明,但它其实是不中用的东西。白炽灯浪费了大量的电,将95%的能量都转化为热而不是光。其寿命也相对较短,随着灯丝断裂,“啪”的一声灯泡的生命也走到了终点。目前,一组研究人员已经发明出一种灯泡,不仅节能,而且比灯泡座的寿命更长。此外,该灯泡既可用于背投电视,也可用于一般的照明。

长寿的秘诀,至少对于灯泡来说,就是保证灯泡没有电极。虽然不可否认,电极可以很方便地将灯泡直接连接到照明系统上,但是这同时也是灯泡为什么会坏掉的主要原因:因为电极用完了。电极会与灯泡里面的气体产生化学反应,这样灯泡就变暗了。将电极与灯泡的结构焊死也非常困难,而这些焊接的裂缝正是灯泡坏掉的另外一个潜在原因。

Ceravision是一家位于英国米尔顿基那斯的公司,在这里工作的科学家设计出了一种新式的电灯,可以不用电极。他们的电灯使用微波将电转化为光。该电灯包括一小块氧化铝,上面有一个洞。当氧化铝在真空中被微波撞击时(产生该微波的装置和微波炉的一样),在氧化铝的小洞里就形成了一个密集的电场。

如果把装有适当气体的圆柱形封壳塞入洞中,气体中的原子就会被电离。随着电场中电子运动的加速,电子与气体的原子和分子结合之后,把传递到原子和分子上的能量聚集起来,制造出一片光亮的等离子体。其产生的光是非常明亮的,而其过程也很节能。实际上,传统的电灯只将5%的能量转化为光,荧光灯的转化比率为15%,而Ceravision电灯的转化比率要大于50%。

因为这种电灯没有灯丝,所以研制该电灯的科学家认为,其使用寿命可达几千个小时,换句话说,可以用几十年。而且,这种电灯产生的光几乎是从一点发出的,这就意味着灯泡可以用在放映机和电视上。就因为这个原因,这种灯泡的灯光更为定向,比向各个方向散射光的灯泡更加节能。有些建筑物的设计比较特别,更换灯泡非常复杂且昂贵,而在这种建筑上使用这种寿命较长的灯泡就比较理想了。这种灯泡体积较小,可以与二极管相媲美,但其发出的光要比半导体装置的光明亮得多。一个微波发生器就可以为几个灯泡提供能量。

这种新灯泡另外一个环保优点就是不需要水银,而水银是一种高毒性的金属,今天我们使用的大部分灯泡中都有这种金属,包括节能的荧光灯、荧光灯管和用在投影机上的高压灯泡。Ceravision承认,新灯泡的造价也很低廉。全世界约20%的电力都用于照明,因此,使用更为高效的照明系统不仅可以节约能源,而且可以减少导致温室效应的气体的排放。





TEXT TWO


For its supporters, the idea of growing single-celled algae on exhaust gas piped from power stations is the ultimate in recycling. For its detractors, it is a mere pipe dream. Whoever turns out to be right, though, it is an intriguing idea: Instead of releasing the carbon dioxide produced by burning fossil fuels into the atmosphere, why not recapture it by photosynthesis? The result could then be turned into biodiesel (since many species of algae store their food reserves as oil), or even simply dried and fed back into the power station. Of course, if it were really that easy, someone would have done it already. But although no one has yet commercialised the technology, several groups are trying.

One of them is GS CleanTech, which has developed a bioreactor based on a patent held by a group of scientists at the Ohio Coal Research Centre, at the University of Ohio. The GS CleanTech bioreactor uses a parabolic mirror to funnel sunlight into fibre-optic cables that carry the light to acrylic “glow plates” inside the reactor. These diffuse the light over vertical sheets of polyester that form the platform on which the algae grow. Eventually the polyester is unable to support the weight of the algae, and they fall off into a collection duct positioned underneath.

GreenFuel Technologies, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, has a different approach. Its reactor is composed of a series of clear tubes, each with a second, opaque tube nested inside. This arrangement makes it possible to bubble the exhaust gas down through the outer compartment and then bubble it back up through the opaque middle. The bubbling gas causes turbulence and circulates the algae around the reactor. The constant shift between light and darkness as the algal cells circulate increases the amount of carbon that they fix, probably by promoting chemical reactions that occur naturally only at night.

A preliminary test of GreenFuel's reactor design, which was performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's campus power plant, suggested that it can remove 75% of the carbon dioxide from a power station's exhaust. A more serious test is now being carried out by Arizona Public Service, that state's power utility, at its Redhawk plant. Another test is planned in Louisiana.

GreenFuel claims that over the course of a year, a hectare (2.5 acres) of its reactors should be able to produce 30,000 litres (8,000 American gallons) of oil, which could be used as biodiesel, and enough carbohydrates to be fermented into 9,000 litres of ethanol, which can be used as a substitute for petrol.

There is, of course, no free lunch. As Rob Carlson of the University of Washington points out, if money is to be made selling products made from exhaust gas, then that gas goes from being waste matter to being a valuable resource. Far from giving it away, power companies might even start charging for it. That would, indeed, be a reversal of fortune.

1. The word “intriguing” (Line 3, Paragraph 1) most probably means _____.

[A] challenging

[B] promising

[C] complicated

[D] alluring

2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the bioreactor developed by GS CleanTech?

[A] No exhaust gas is used in this bioreactor.

[B] The “glow plates” are used to conduct the sunlight.

[C] Sunlight comes into the fiber-optic cables through holes in the parabolic mirror.

[D] Photosynthesis is carried out by the algae in the collection duct.

3. The collection duct positioned underneath is used to _____.

[A] hold the vertical sheets of polyester that fall off

[B] substitute the platform on which the algae grows

[C] obtain the overweight algae

[D] take the place of polyester after light is diffused on it

4. The approach developed by the GreenFuel Technologies is different from that by GS CleanTech in that _____.

[A] there is no photosynthesis in the reactor of GreenFuel Technologies

[B] the light used for photosynthesis is produced by the reactor itself

[C] the algal cells fix carbon in the process

[D] the exhaust gas acts as the motive force

5. The reactors of GreenFuel could produce the following fuels except _____.

[A] biodiesel

[B] ethanol

[C] alcohol

[D] fossil fuel





文章剖析


这篇文章讲述了绿色燃料的研发情况。第一段讲述了人们希望可以利用光合作用来生成燃料;第二段和第三段讲述有两家公司都在研制绿色燃料,但是使用的技术不同;第四段和第五段讲述绿色燃料开发使用的地点和规模;第六段讲述将来电力公司可能会对绿色燃料实行收费。





词汇注释


detractor n. 恶意批评者

pipe dream 白日梦

biodiesel n. 生物燃料

parabolic mirror 抛物柱面镜

acrylic adj. 丙烯酸的

duct n. 管

carbohydrate n. 碳水化合物

ferment v. 发酵

ethanol n. 乙醇,酒精





难句突破


① The constant shift between light and darkness as the algal cells circulate increases the amount of carbon that they fix, probably by promoting chemical reactions that occur naturally only at night.

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