考试吧:2018年考研《英语二》真题及答案解析

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  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

  Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful? Because humans have an inherent need to 1 uncertainty, according to a recent study in Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is so strong that people will 2 to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will 3 .

  In a series of four experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago and the Wisconsin School of Business tested students' willingness to 4 themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one 5 each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist?Half of the pens would 6 an electric shock when clicked.

  Twenty-seven students were told which pens were electrified; another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified 7 left alone in the room, the students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than the students who knew what would 8 . Subsequent experiments reproduced this effect with other stimuli, 9 the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.

  The drive to 10 is deeply rooted in humans, much the same as the basic drives for 11 or shelter, says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago. Curiosity is often considered a good instinct-it can 12 new scientific advances, for instance-but sometimes such 13 can backfire. The insight that curiosity can drive you to do 14 things is a profound one. Unhealthy curiosity is possible to 15 , however. In a final experiment, participants who were encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to 17 to see such an image. These results suggest that imagining the 18 of following through on one's curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor. Thinking about long-term 20 is key to reducing the possible negative effects of curiosity." Hsee says. In other words, don't read online comments.

  1. A. resolve B. protect C. discuss D. ignore

  2. A. refuse B. wait C. seek D. regret

  3. A. riseB. lastC. misleadD. hurt

  4. A. alert B. tie C. expose D. treat

  5. A. messageB. trialC. reviewD. concept

  6. A. remove B. weakenC. deliverD. interrupt

  7. A. Unless B. If C. ThoughD. When

  8. A. happenB. continueC. disappearD. change

  9. A. rather thanB. such asC. regardless ofD. owing to

  10. A. disagreeB. forgiveC. forgetD. discover

  11. A. payB. marriageC. foodD. schooling

  12. A. begin withB. rest onC. learn fromD. lead to

  13.A. withdrawal B. inquiryC. persistenceD. diligence

  14.A. self-destructiveB. self-reliantC. self-evidentD. self-deceptive

  15.A. resistB. defineC. replaceD. trace

  16.A. predictB. overlookC. designD. conceal

  17. A. rememberB. chooseC. promiseD. pretend

  18. A. reliefB. planC. outcomeD. duty

  19.A. whetherB. whyC. whereD. how

  20. A. limitationsB. investmentsC. strategiesD. consequences

  答案及解析:

  1. A. resolve

  resolve 解决 protect 保护 discuss 讨论 ignore忽视

  联系上下文“the need to know”,显然是人类有解决未知(resolve uncertainty)的内在需要。

  2. C. seek

  seek to do sth 争取/设法去做某事 “人们会设法满足自己的好奇心”

  3. D. hurt

  hurt vi 有坏处,带来痛苦“即使显然答案会令人受伤”

  4. C. expose

  expose sb/oneself to sth 使某人/自己暴露在……

  5. B. message

  message 信息 trial实验 review评论,复习 concept 概念

  Trial与前面experiment对应,后面也是行为实验中的具体内容。

  6. C. deliver

  remove 消除 weaken 削弱 deliver 传递 interrupt 打断

  动词辨析 deliver an electric shock 传递一阵电击

  7. D. When

  Unless 除非 If 如果 Though 尽管 When当……时候

  8. A. happen

  happen 发生 continue 持续 disappear 消失 change 改变

  “students who knew what would happen”与前文“students who did not know……”照应

  9. B. such as

  rather than 而不是 such as 例如 regardless of 不管,不顾 owing to 因为

  考察语义逻辑 后面明显是other stimuli的举例。

  10. D. discover

  disagree 不同意 forgive 原谅 forget 遗忘 discover 发现

  “人类内心根植着发现的欲望”

  11. C. food

  pay 支付 marriage 婚姻 food 事物 schooling上学

  food and shelter 为常见搭配,吃住是人类最基本的欲望。

  12. D. lead to

  begin with 以…为开始 rest on 依靠,被搁在 learn from 从…上学习 lead to 引起,导致

  13. B. inquiry

  withdrawal 撤出 inquiry 探究,调查 persistence坚持,毅力 diligence勤奋,努力

  14. B. self-reliant

  self-destructive 自我毁灭的 self-reliant 自力更生的

  self-evident 不言而喻的 self-deceptive 自欺的

  15. A. resist

  resist 抵制,忍住 define 定义 replace 代替 trace 追踪

  根据however转折,上文说好奇心有时会招致毁灭性后果,此处应该说 “然而,不良的好奇心是可以忍住的”

  16. A. predict

  predict 预测 overlook 忽视 design 设计 conceal 隐藏

  动词辨析题“实验鼓励参与者预测行为后果”

  17. B. choose

  remember 记住 choose 选择 promise 承诺 pretend 假装

  考察语义逻辑和动词辨析“有所预测的参与者不太可能选择再看那些图”

  18. C. outcome

  名词辨析:relief 救济,减轻 plan 计划 outcome 结果 duty 职责

  19. A. whether

  Whether 是否

  考察语义逻辑关系 “提前想象后果从而决定是否值得做”

  20. D. consequences

  limitations 局限 investments 投资 strategies 策略 consequences 后果

  名词辨析“思考长期后果是减少好奇心不利影响的关键”,与前文predict the outcome照应

  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A:

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET I. (40 points)

  Text 1

  It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.

  Mr. Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike chain?

  As Koziatek knows, there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.

  But he’s also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority. Schools in the family of vocational education “have that stereotype..that it’s for kids who can’t make it academically,” he says.

  On one hand, that viewpoint is a logical product of America’s evolution. Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was. The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated. More education is the new principle. We want more for our kids, and rightfully so.

  But the headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all -and the subtle devaluing of anything less-misses an important point: That’s not the only thing the American economy needs. Yes, a bachelor’s degree opens more doors. But even now, 54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs, such as construction and high-skill manufacturing. But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.

  In other words, at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head, frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing, one obvious solution is staring us in the face. There is a gap in working-class jobs, but the workers who need those jobs most aren’t equipped to do them. Koziatek’s Manchester School of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.

  Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call. When education becomes one-size-fits-all, it risks overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts.

  21. A broken bike chain is mentioned to show students’ lack of______.

  A. mechanical memorization

  B. academic training

  C. practical ability

  D. pioneering spirit

  22. There exists the prejudice that vocational education is for kids who______.

  A. are financially disadvantaged

  B. are not academically successful

  C. have a stereotyped mind

  D. have no career motivation

  23. We can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates______.

  A. are entitled to more educational privileges

  B. are reluctant to work in manufacturing

  C. used to have more job opportunities

  D. used to have big financial concerns

  24. The headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all_____.

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