考研英语阅读:细节题中巧用词汇技法

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 考研英语阅读理解中细节考查题达到阅读总题量的60%-70%。根据这一数据,如果我们在阅读中,能够快速准确拿下细节题,那么不但能够在阅读中取得较高的分数,而且能为写作留出给多的时间。既然细节题在考研英语中如此重要,我们应该怎样去解这类题型呢?

  首先我们应该锁定细节题在原文中的位置,一般可以通过题干中出现的人物、时间、段落提示语等关键词确定原文中的答案区间,进而找到关键语句。然 后把原文与题目中的选项进行比对,选择与原文意思比较接近的并且符合题目要求的选项,正确选项一般是对原文内容的同义替换。而这主要是通过词汇的变换来实 现的,包括1.原词重现;2.同近义词替换;3.反义词替换;4.上下义词替换。下面我们通过历年真题来看一下如何利用词汇技法来解答阅读中的细节题。

  1.原词重现

  The president of the National Academy, Bruce Alberts, added this key point in the preface to the panel’s report: “But science does provide us with the best available guide to the future, and it is critical.。。”(2005 T 2)

  27. According to Bruce Alberts, science can serve as ________。

  [A] a protector

  [B] a judge

  [C] a critic

  [D] a guide

  在找这道题的原文区间时,我们首先要锁定题干中的专有名词Bruce Alberts, 然后去原文中找对应的段落和句子。通过分析science does provide us with the best available guide,即为science can serve as a guide. 选项guide为原文中的词汇。

  2.同近义词替换

  (1)Losing a job is hurting: you don’t skip down to the job centre with a song in your heart, delighted at the prospect of doubling your income from the generous state. It is financially terrifying, psychologically embarrassing and you know that support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. (2014 Text 1)

  34.According to Paragraph 3,being unemployed makes one feel

  [A]uneasy

  分析:锁定原文第三自然段,being unemployed 即为losing the job, uneasy是embarrassing的同义替换。

  (2)What motivated him, we were to understand, was his zeal for “fundamental fairness”—protecting the taxpayer, controlling spending and ensuring that only the most deserving claimants received their benefits. (2014 Text 1)

  33. What prompted the chancellor to develop his scheme?

  [D] A passion to ensure fairness for taxpayers。

  分析:题干中prompt为motivate的同义词,选项中passion为zeal的同义替换。

  同近义词替换在题干和选项中出现的频率较高,大家在记忆词汇的时候需要了解常考词汇的同近义词。

  3.反义词替换

  In order to “change lives for the better” and reduce “dependency,” George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced the “upfront work search” scheme. (2014 Text 1)

  31. George Osborne’s scheme was intended to

  [B] encourage jobseekers’active engagement in job seeking。

  分析:reduce dependency即为encourage active engagement, active engagement是dependency的反义词。

  4.上下义词替换

  As a News Feature article in Nature discusses, a string of lucrative awards for researchers have joined the Nobel Prizes in recent years。
31.The Fundamental Physics Prize is seen as
[D] a handsome reward for researchers。

  分析:题干中The Fundamental Physics Prize是a string of lucrative awards中的一种,The Fundamental Physics Prize是award的下义词。另外,handsome为lucrative的同义词。

  通过考研阅读真题的分析,大家应该对考研中如何利用词汇技法来选择正确答案,例如原词重现、近反义词、上下义词等词汇的考察和运用有了更深的了解。希望大家在以后的考研英语阅读中,多运用这些词汇技法进行解题,你会发现阅读其实也很“简单”。

  本文由文都教育供稿

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