2016考研英语:阅读的“读”与“不读”

点赞(0) 反对(0) 本站小编 跨考教育 2015-05-12 20:44:59 阅读(0)

  很多同学认为只要能够掌握词汇,语法就能看懂文章,再加上对于题目的正确理解,解题方法的掌握,拿下阅读自然不在话下。其实如此看是很片面的。

  从宏观上来看,要“得”阅读,首先要能看懂文章,其次要能做对题目。就看懂文章来说,单词认识了,语法学会了,只意味着能看懂长难句了。而一篇 文章,绝不仅仅是句子的叠加。更何况,我们很少有同学真的能够看懂文章中的每一句话。事实上,对于做对题目来说,也不需要百分百把握文章中的每一个信息。 在一篇400字左右的文章中,一定有些内容是重要的,是对于做对题目十分关键的,有些内容是不重要的,与答题无关,或者关联不大。这是必然的。

  那么我们该如何确定哪些内容是重要的,哪些是不重要的呢?这些判断有什么样的依据呢?从操作层面上来说,我们该如何操作呢?跨考教育英语教研室刘正锋老师就考研阅读中读什么,不读什么给大家进行简明的讲解。

  理论基础

  考研阅读的真题都来自于诸如 The Economists, Scientific American, New York Times, The Gardian 等西方主流的报刊杂志。这些杂志上刊登的文章通常是关于社会生活,政治经济、科教文卫方面的比较科学,严谨的文章。而文章的体裁通常以议论文居多。一篇议 论文通常是有论点和论据构成的。论点是作者想要论述的观点,论据是为了证明所提出的观点的。

  一篇文章中,哪些是论点,哪些是论据,我们必须要有清晰的认识。从重要性上来说,论点的的重要性远远大于论据。所以对于我们读文章来说,显然论点是重要的的,需要重点读的,而论据是次要的,可以略读或者不读的。

  操作方式

  那么,如何去判断哪些是论点,哪些是论据呢?从位置上来说,文章论点常常的文章开头的第一或第二段提出,段落论点常常的段首句或转折句,极个别 的情况下出现在段尾句。从句子长度来说通常论点的句子比较简短。论据常常是一些举例或者引用的东西,往往还有一些时间,数据,人名,地名,机构名词之类特 别具体的信息。

  更具体的来说,文章中需要重点精读的内容为:段首句,转折句,根据题干定位的句子。

  可以略读或者不读的内容包括:

  有关职务、头衔、社会地位等补充性说明;通常这些信息是出现在人名,机构名词之后的定语或同位语。

  ② 两个逗号之间或两个破折号之间的插入语;

  ③句中破折号、冒号后面的旁支信息;

  ④复杂的难句中除了主、谓、宾以外的其他辅助信息;(除非与解题有关)

  ⑤出现for example/instance, 大写字母、数字等信息的内容

  ⑥对名人言论的引用的具体内容

  实例分析

  以1997年阅读理解第三篇文章为例,我们把可以略读的内容用下划线标示出来,那么结果如下:

  Much of the language used to describe monetary policy, such as “steering the economy to a soft landing” or “a touch on the brakes,” makes it sound like a precise science. Nothing could be further from the truth. The link between interest rates and inflation is uncertain. And there are long, variable lags before policy changes have any effect on the economy. Hence the analogy that likens the conduct of monetary policy to driving a car with a blackened windscreen, a cracked rear-view mirror and a faulty steering wheel。

  Given all these disadvantages, central bankers seem to have had much to boast about of late. Average inflation in the big seven industrial economies fell to a mere 2.3% last year, close to its lowest level in 30 years, before rising slightly to 2.5% this July. This is a long way below the double-digit rates which many countries experienced in the 1970s and early 1980s。

  It is also less than most forecasters had predicted. In late 1994 the panel of economists which The Economist polls each month said that America’s inflation rate would average 3.5% in 1995. In fact, it fell to 2.6% in August, and is expected to average only about 3% for the year as a whole. In Britain and Japan inflation is running half a percentage point below the rate predicted at the end of last year. This is no flash in the pan; over the past couple of years, inflation has been consistently lower than expected in Britain and America。

  Economists have been particularly surprised by favorable inflation figures in Britain and the United States, since conventional measures suggest that both economies, and especially America’s, have little productive slack. America’s capacity utilization, for example, hit historically high levels earlier this year, and its jobless rate (5.6% in August) has fallen below most estimates of the natural rate of unemployment -- the rate below which inflation has taken off in the past。

  Why has inflation proved so mild? The most thrilling explanation is, unfortunately, a little defective. Some economists argue that powerful structural changes in the world have up-ended the old economic models that were based upon the historical link between growth and inflation。

  这样,我们的阅读量就大大减少了,而且根据这些剩余的内容,文章后面的题目,出来极个别的细节题,基本答案都可以毫不费力的做出来了,同学们不妨一试。

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