美国文学简史列纲详细复习(4)

匿名 免费考研网/2009-01-04


Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

“New England poet”
My butterfly <我的蝴蝶>
A Boy’s Will <少年的意志>
North of Boston <波士顿以北>
Mountain Interval <山间>
New Hampshire <新罕布什尔>
West-Running Brook <向西流去的小溪>
A Further Range <又一片牧场>
Mending Wall <修墙>
After Apple-Picking <摘苹果之后>
The Birches <白桦树>
A Witness Tree <见证树>
Steeple Bush <尖塔丛>
A Masque of Mercy <假慈悲>
Collected Poems <诗选>
Complete Poems <诗歌全集>
In the Clearing <林间空地>
won Pulitzer Prize 4 times
Appointed as professor or visiting poet by dozens of universities
Be entitled “national poet” by American senate at age of 75
Recited his poem The Gift Outright on Inauguration Day of John Kennedy <全心全意的奉献>
Last poem at age of 88
(II) American Drama
Disapproved by Puritanism, American drama started late and developed slowly. European drama entered its heyday at the end of the 19th century. Many small theatres appeared in America under the influence of European drama. Famous ones are as follows:
Washington Square Theatre in 1915→Theatre Guild in 1919剧院协会
Provincetown Theatre in 1915 普罗文斯敦剧社
Group Theatre in 1931  同仁剧社
1 Great playwright of the 1920s
Eugene O’Neil (1888—1953) 尤金.奥尼尔
America’s greatest playwright
American Shakespeare
A prize-winning playwright:
4 times won the Pulitzer Prize (1920; 1922; 1928; 1957)
and one time won the Nobel Prize (1936)
Beyond the Horizon <天边外>--the Pulitzer Prize in 1920
(reality destroy people’s ideal life)
Anna Christie <安娜.克里斯蒂>–the Pulitzer Prize in 1922
the Nobel Prize in 1936 for the above two
Bound East for Cardiff <东航加迪夫> (1916)
In the Zone 《在这一带》(1917)
The Long Voyage Home 《漫长的返航》(1917)
The Moon of the Caribbean 《加勒比的月亮》 (1918)
Emperor Jones <琼斯皇帝> (1920)
The Hairy Ape <毛猿> (1922)
--workers be treated as animals in capitalist society
Desire under the Elms <榆树下的欲望> (1924)
--bourgeoisie families fought for property and its consequences
The Great God Brown <大神布朗> (1926)
Strange Interlude <奇妙的插曲> (1928)
Lazarus Laughed <拉散路笑了>
Mourning Becomes Electra <悲悼> (1931)
Ah, Wilderness <啊,荒野> (the only comedy)
The Iceman Cometh <卖冰的人来了>--people’s void and despair during the 30s crisis
Long Day’s Journey into Night (on stage after death)<进入黑夜的漫长旅程>--the Pulitzer Prize in 1957
The above two underlined –the best works
2 playwrights of the 1930s
Clifford Odets (1906—1963) 克利福德.奥德茨
born in Philadelphia and reared in the Bronx
quit school at 15 to become an actor
a founder of Group Theatre after acting with the Theatre Guild
Waiting for Lefty <等待老左> (one-act play dealing with a taxi strike)
(III) Novels Between Two World Wars
1 Lost Generation----Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) 厄内斯特.海明威
 
Outstanding modern American novelist
journalist & war experience
Three stories and Ten Poems (1923) 《三篇短篇小说和十首诗》
In Our Time (1925) 《在我们的时代里》
--a new shining literary star with unique style
The Sun Also Rises (1926) 《太阳照样升起》—the first long novel
A Farewell to Arms (1929) 《永别了,武器》
Death in the Afternoon (1932) 《午后之死》
Green Hills of Africa (1935) 《非洲的青山》
Winner Take Nothing (1933) 《胜者无所得》
To Have and Have Not (1937) 《富有与贫穷》
For whom the Bell Tolls (1940) 《丧钟为谁而鸣》
The Old Man and the Sea (1952) 《老人与海》
Awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954
2 The Age of Jazz----F. Scott Fitzgerald
outstanding American novelist
F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896—1940) 弗.司各特.菲茨杰拉德
The Romantic Egoist 《浪漫的利己主义者》―→
This Side of Paradise (1920) 《人间天堂》
Flappers and Philosophers (1921) 《轻佻女郎与哲学家》
Tales of the Jazz Age (1922) 《爵士乐时代的故事》
The Beautiful and Damned (1922) 《漂亮冤家》
The Diamond as Big as the Ritz 《大如里兹饭店的钻石》(a short story)
The Great Gatsby (1925) 《大人物盖茨比》
All the Sad Young Men (1926) 《一代悲哀的年轻人》
---(a collection of short stories)
Tender Is the Night (1934) 《夜色温柔》
The Last Tycoon (1941) 《最后的一个巨头》
3 Literature of Depression:
① John Steinbeck (1902—1968)约翰.斯坦贝克
American novelist
Write long novels, plays, short stories, travel notes and news etc.
Of Mice and Men (1937) 《鼠与人》
The Grapes of Wrath (1938) 《愤怒的葡萄》
②John Dos Passos (1896—1970) 约翰.多斯.帕索斯
American novelist & social historian
Write novels, plays, reportage, travel notes and prose etc.
Manhattan Transfer (1925) 《曼哈顿中转站》
U.S. A. 《美国》三部曲:
The Forty-Second Parallel (1930) 《北纬四十二度》
1919 (1932) 《一九一九》
The Big Money (1936) 《赚大钱》
His achievement in composition earned him reputation
4 Literature of the South / the Southern Renaissance
The Virginia Review  《弗吉尼亚评论》(1925)
The Fugitives “逃亡者派”/ Agrarian“重农学派”
The Fugitives 《逃亡者》杂志
Southern Review 《南方评论》杂志→
Kenyon Review 《肯庸评论》杂志→
The New Criticism 新批评派
(1) William Faulkner (1897—1962) 威廉.福克纳
 modern novelist
19 novels and 3 collections of more than 70 short stories
The Marble Faun (1924) 《玉石收神》
The Sound and the Fury (1929) 《喧哗与骚动》
Light in August (1932) 《八月之光》
Absalom, Absalom! (1936) 《押沙龙,押沙龙!》
Go Down, Moses (1942) 《去吧,摩西》
(2) Katherine Anne Porter (1890—1980) 凯瑟琳.安.波特
female writer born in Texas of a family with a long southern heritage
educated in convent and private schools
later traveled widely
the settings for her fiction, in addition to her native state, include Mexico, where she lived for some time, and Germany, where she resided more briefly.
The Flowering Judas (1930) 《开花的紫荆树》
The Leaning Tower (1944) 《斜塔》
A Ship of Fools (1962) 《愚人船》
(3) John Crowe Ransom (1888—1974) 约翰.克劳伍.兰塞姆
Tennessee poet
A Rhodes Scholar at Oxford (1913)
A member of the English department of Vanderbilt University
A leader of the Agrarian
An editor of The Fugitives
Founded and edited Kenyon Review
Placed stress on New Criticism
Contributed to the Agrarian anthology: I’ll Take My Stand
5 Other famous novelists in the 1920s
(1) Gertrude Stein (1874—1946) 格特鲁德.斯泰因/斯坦
Born in Pennsylvania
Educated abroad
Went abroad in 1902 where she lived until her death
Her salon in France
Three Lives (1909) 《三个女人的一生》
(2) Sherwood Anderson (1876—1941) 舍伍德.安德森
Windy McPherson’s Son (1916) 《饶舌的麦克逊的儿子》
Winesburg, Ohio (1919) 《小城畸人》
The Triumph of the Egg and Other stories (1921) 《鸡蛋的胜利及其它》
Death in the Woods and Other Stories (1933) 《林中之死及其它》
A Story-Teller’s Story (1924) 《讲故事人的故事》
(3) Sinclair Lewis (1885—1951) 辛克莱.刘易斯
Editor & journalist
22 novels
novelist of social problems 社会问题小说家
plot: escape--seek--compromise
first American author awarded the Nobel Prize (in 1930)
Our Mr. Wrenn (1941) 《我们的霍恩先生》
Babbitt (1922) 《巴比特》
Main Street (1920) 《大街》
Arrowsmith (1925) 《阿罗史密斯》


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