4．考试时间为 3小时，成绩满分 100分。
Part I. Vocabularyand Grammar(30 points,1 point foreach)
Directions: After each sentence there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Choose the answer that best completes the sentence. Write your answers on your answer sheet.
1. Although she gives badly _______ titles to her musical compositions, they _______ unusual combinations of materials including classical music patterns and rhythms, electronic sounds, and bird songs.
A. conventional … incorporate B. eccentric … deploy
C. traditional …exclude D. imaginative …disguise
2. Even though the folktales Perroult collected and retold were not solely French in origin, his versions of them were so decidedly French in style that later anthologies of French folktales have never _______ them.
A. excluded B. admired C. collected D. comprehended
3. In arguing against assertions that environmental catastrophe is imminent, her book does not ridicule all predictions of doom but rather claims that the risksof harm have in many cases been _________.
A. exaggerated B. ignored C. scrutinized D. derided
4. There seems to be no ________ the reading public’s thirst for books about the 1960’s: indeed, the normal level of interest has ______ recentlybecause of a spate of popular television documentaries.
A. quenching … moderated B. whetting … mushroomed
C. slaking …increased D. ignoring …transformed
5. Despite a tendency to be overtly _______, the poetry of the Middle Ages often sparks the imagination and provides lively entertainment, as well as pious sentiments.
A. diverting B. emotional C. didactic D. romantic
6. One of the first ______ of reduced burning in Amazon rain forests was the chestnut industry: smoke tends to drive out the insect that, by pollinatingchestnut tree, allow chestnuts to develop.
A. reformers B. discoveries C. casualties D. beneficiaries
7. The research committee urged the archaeologist to _______ her claim that the tomb she has discovered was that ofAlexander the Great, since her initial report has been based only on ______.
A. disseminate … supposition B. withdraw … evidence
C. undercut …caprice D. document …conjecture
8. Although Heron is well known for the broad comedy in the movies she has directed previously, her new film is less inclined to__________:the gags are fewer and subtler.
A. understatement B. preciosity C. symbolism D. melodrama
9. Bebop’s legacy is______ one: bebop may have won jazz the right to be taken seriously as an art form, but it _______ jazz’s mass audience, which turned to other forms of music such as rock and pop.
A. a mixed……alienated B. a troubled……seduced
C. an ambiguous……aggrandized D. a valuable……refined
10. The exhibition’s importance lies in its___________: curators have gathered a diverse array of significant works from many different museums.
A. homogeneity B. sophistry C. scope D. farsightedness
11. Despite the fact that the commission’s report treats a vitally important topic, the report will be ______ read because its prose is so _________ thatunderstanding itrequiresan enormous effort.
A. seldom…….transparent B. carefully……..pellucid
C. little……….turgid D. eagerly……..digressive
12. Carleton would still rank among the great ________ of nineteenth century American art even if the circumstance of her life and career were less _____ than they are.
A. celebrities……….obscure B. failures……..illustrious
C. charlatans……impeccable D. enigmas……mysterious
13.Although based on an actual event, the film lacks______________: the director shuffles events, simplifies the tangle of relationships, and _____________documentary truth for dramatic power.
A. conviction……..embraces B. expressiveness…..exaggerates
C. verisimilitude…….sacrifices D. realism……….substitutes
14. When Adolph Ochs became the publisher of The New York Times, he endowed the paper with a uniquely _________ tone, avoiding the ________ editorials thatcharacterized other major papers of the time.
A. abstruse….scholarly B. dispassionate…shrill
C. argumentative…tendentious D. cosmopolitan…timely
15. There are as good fish in the sea _____ever came out of it.
A. than B. like C. as D. so
16. All the President’s Men ______one of the important books for historianswho studytheWatergate Scandal.
A. remain B. remains C. remained D. isremaining
17. “You ______ borrow my notes provided you take care of them”, I toldmy friend.
A. could B. should C. must D. can
18. If only the patient ______a different treatment instead of using the antibiotics,he might stillbe alive now.
A. hadreceived B. received C. shouldreceive D. werereceiving
19. Linda was _____the experiment a month ago, but she changed her mindat the last minute.
A. to start B. to have started
C. tobestarting D. tohavebeenstarting
20. She _____fifty or so when I first met her at the conference.
A. mustbe B. hadbeen C. couldbe D. musthavebeen
21. It is not ______much the language as the background that makes the book difficultto understand.
A. that B. as C. so D. very
22. The committee has anticipated the problems that ________in the road construction project.
A. arise B. will arise C. arose D. have arisen
23. The student said there were a few points in the essay he _______impossible to comprehend.
A. had found B. finds C. has found D. would find
24. He would have finished his college education, but he _______to quitand find a job to support hisfamily.
A. hadhad B. has C. had D. wouldhave
25. The research requires more money than ________.
A. have been put in B. has been put in
C. beingputin D. tobeputin
26. Overpopulation poses a terrible threat to the human race. Yet it is probably ________a threat to the human race than environmental destruction.
A. no more B. not more C. even more D. much more
27. It is not uncommon for there _______problems of communication between the old and the young.
A. being B. would be C. be D. to be
28.________at inhis way,the situation does not seem so desperate.
A. Looking B. Looked C. Beinglooked D. Tolook
29. It is absolutely essential that William ______ his study in spite of some learning difficulties.
A. willcontinue B. continued C. continue D. continues
30. The painting he bought at the street market the other day was a _____ forgery.
A. man-made B. natural C. crude D. real
Part II. Reading Comprehension(40 points)
Section 1 Multiple choice questions(20 points, 2 points foreach)
Directions: In this section there are reading passages followed by multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then write your answers on your answer sheet.
On New Year’s Day, 50,000 inmates in Kenyan jails went without lunch. This was not some mass hunger strike to highlight poor living conditions. It was an extraordinary humanitarian gesture: the money that would have been spent on their lunches went to the charity Food Aid to help feed an estimated 3.5 million Kenyans who, because of a severe drought, are threatened with starvation. The drought is big news in Africa, affecting huge areas of east Africa and the Horn. If you are reading this in the west, however, you may not be aware of it—the media is not interested in old stories. Even if you do know about the drought, you may not be aware that it is devastating one group of people disproportionately: the pastoralists. There are 20 million nomadic or semi-nomadic herders in this region, and they are fast becoming some of the poorest people in the continent. Their plight encapsulatesAfrica’sperennial problem withdrought and famine.
How so? It comes down to the reluctance of governments, aid agencies and foreign lenders to support the herders’ traditional way of life. Instead they have tended to try to turn them into commercial ranchers or agriculturalists, even though it has been demonstrated time and again that pastoralists are well adapted to their harsh environments, and that moving livestock according to the seasons or climatic changes makes their methods far more viable than agriculture in sub-Saharan drylands.
Furthermore, African pastoralist systems are often more productive, in terms of protein and cash per hectare, thanAustralian,American and other African ranches in similar climatic conditions. They make a substantial contribution to their countries’ national economies. In Kenya, for example, the turnover of the pastoralist sector is worth $800 million per year. In countries such as Burkina Faso, Eritrea and Ethiopia, hides from pastoralists’ herds make up over 10 per cent of export earnings. Despite this productivity, pastoralists still starve and their animals perish when drought hits. One reason is that only a trickle of the profits goes to the herders themselves; the lion’s share is pocketed by traders. This is partly because the herders only sell much of their stock during times of drought and famine, when they need the cash to buy food, and the terms of trade in this situation never work in their favour.Another reason is the lack of investment in herding areas.
Funding bodies such as the World Bank and-USAID tried to address some of the problems in the 1960s, investing millions of dollars in commercial beef and dairy production. It didn’t work. Firstly, no one bothered to consult the pastoralists about what they wanted. Secondly, rearing livestock took precedence over human progress. The policies and strategies of international development agencies more or less mirrored the thinking of their colonial predecessors. They were based on two false assumptions: that pastoralism is primitive and inefficient, which led to numerous failed schemes aimed at converting herders to modern ranching models; and that Africa’s drylands can support commercial ranching. They cannot. Most of Africa’s herders live in areas with unpredictable weather systems that are totally unsuited to commercial ranching.
What the pastoralists need is support for their traditional lifestyle. Over the past few years, funders and policy-makers have been starting to get the message. One example is intervention by governments to ensure that pastoralists get fair prices for their cattle when they sell them in times of drought, so that they can afford to buy fodder for their remaining livestock and cereals to keep themselves and their families alive (the problem inAfrican famines is not so much a lack of food as a lack of money to buy it). Another example is a drought early-warning system run by the Kenyan government and the World Bank that has helped avert livestock deaths.
This is all promising, but more needs to be done. Some African governments still favour forcing pastoralists to settle. They should heed the latest scientific research demonstrating the productivity of traditional cattle-herding. Ultimately, sustainable rural development in pastoralist areas will depend on increasing trade, so one thing going for them is the growing demand for livestock products: there will likely be an additional 2 billion consumers worldwide by 2020, the vast majority in developing countries. To ensure that pastoralists benefit, it will be crucial to give them a greater say in local policies.
Other key tasks include giving a greater say to women, who play critical roles in livestock production. The rich world should pay proper attention to the plight of the pastoralists. Leaving them dependent on foreign food aid is unsustainable and will lead to more resentment, conflict, environmental degradation and malnutrition. It is in the rich world’s interests to help out.
31.Which of the followingCANNOTbe concluded from the passage?
(A) Forcing Africa’s nomadic herders to become ranchers will save themfrom drought.
(B) The difference between pastoralist and agriculturalist is vital to theAfrican people.
(C) The rich world should give more support to theAfrican people to overcome drought.
(D) Environmental degradation should be the major concern in developingAfrica’s pastoralism.
32.The word “encapsulates” in the sentence “Their plight encapsulates Africa’s perennial problem with drought and famine.” (para. l) can be replaced by ________.
33.What is the author’s attitude towardAfrican drought and traditional lifestyle of pastoralism?
(A) Neutral and indifferent.
(B) Sympathetic and understanding.
(C) Critical and vehement.
(D) Subjective and fatalistic.
34. When the author writes “the policies and strategies of international development agencies more or less mirrored the thinking of their colonial predecessors.” (para.4), he implies all the following EXCEPT thatthe aid agencies did not __________.
(A) have an objective view of the situationinAfrica
(B) understand the unpredictable weather systems there
(C) feel themselves superior in decision making
(D) care about the development of the local people
35.The author’s main purpose inwriting this article is _________.
(A) to evaluate the living conditionsof Kenyan pastoralists
(B) to give suggestions on the support of the traditional pastoralism inAfrica
(C) to illustrate the difference between commercial ranching and pastoralism
(D) to criticize the colonial thinking of western aid agencies
Civil-Liberties advocates reeling from the recent revelations on surveillance had something else to worry about last week: the privacy of the billions of search queries made on sites like Google, AOL, Yahoo and Microsoft. As part of a long-running court case, the government has asked those companies to turn over information on its users’search behavior.All but Google have handed over data, and now the Department of Justice (DOJ) has moved to compel the search giant toturn over the goods.
What makes this case different is that the intended use of the information is not related to national security, but the government’s continuing attempt to police Internet pornography. In 1998, Congress passed the Child Online Protection Act (COPA), but courts have blocked its implementation due to First Amendment concerns. In its appeal, the DOJ wants to prove how easy it is to inadvertently stumble upon pore. In order to conduct a controlled experiment—to be performed by a UC Berkeley professor of statistics—the DOJ wants to use a large sample of actual search terms from the different search engines. It would then use those terms to do its own searches, employing the different kinds of filters each search engine offers, in an attempt to quantify how often “material that is harmful to minors” might appear. Google contends that since it is not a party to the case, the government has not right to demand its proprietary information to perform its test. “We intend to resist their motion vigorously,” said Google attorney NicoleWong.
DOJ spokesperson Charles Miller says that the government is requesting only the actual search terms, and not anything that would link the queries to those who made them. (The DOJ is also demanding a list of a million Web sites that Google indexes to determine the degree to which objectionable sites are searched.) Originally, the government asked for a treasure trove of all searches made in June and July 2005; the request has been scaled back to one week’s worth of search queries.
One oddity about the DOJ’s strategy is that the experiment could conceivably sink its own case. If the built-in filters that each search engine provides are effective in blocking porn sites, the government will have wound up proving what the opposition has said all along—you don’t need to suppress speech to protect minors on the Net. “We think that our filtering technology does a good job protecting minors from inadvertently seeing adult content,” says Ramez Naam, group program manager of MSN Search.
Though the government intends to use these data specifically for its COPA-related test, it’s possible that the information could lead to further investigations and, perhaps, subpoenas to find out who was doing the searching. “What if certain search terms indicated that people were contemplating terrorist actions or other criminal activities?” Says the DOJ’s Miller, “I’m assuming that if something raised alarms, we would hand it over to the proper authorities.” Privacy advocates fear that if the government request is upheld, it will open the door to further government examination of search behavior. One solution would be for Google to stop storing the information, but the company hopes to eventually use the personal information of consenting customers to improve search performance. “Search is a window into people’s personalities,” says Kurt Opsahl, an Electronic Frontier Foundation attorney. “They should be able to take advantage of the Internet without worrying about Big Brother looking over their shoulders.”
36. When the American government asked Google, AOL, Yahoo and Microsoft to turn over information on its users’ search behavior, the major intentionis _________.
(A) to protect national security
(B) to help protect personal freedom
(C) to monitor Internet pornography
(D) to implement the ChildOnline ProtectionAct
37. Google refused to turn over “its proprietary information”(para.2) required by DOJ as it believes that ________.
(A) it is notinvolved in the court case
(B) users’privacy is mostimportant
(C) the government has violated the FirstAmendment
(D) search terms is the company’s business secret
38. The phrase “scaled back to” in the sentence “the request has been scaled back to one week’s worth of search queries” (para.3) can be replaced by _________.
(A) maximized to
(B) minimized to
(C) returned to
(D) reduced to
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