2017考研英语:非谓语动词用法比较(三)

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三、不定式、分词和动名词作定语的区别

1.不定式与分词作定语是垢区别主要表现时态上;不珲式作定语通常指动作;现在分词作定语指正进行的动作;过去分词作定语指已经完成的动作。如:

I have three letters to write this evening. 我有三封信要写。

Do you know the man sitting at the desk? 你认识坐在桌子旁的那个人吗?

Have you read any short stories translated by Lu Xun? 你读过鲁迅先生翻译过的小说吗?

2.现在分词作定语表示它所修饰的名词的动作,二者是逻辑上的主谓关系,读时都有重音。动名词作定语通常表示它所修饰的名词的用途,二者不存在逻辑上的主谓关系,读时只重读动名词。动名词作定语只有置于被修饰词的前面,而分词作定语有时可置前,有时可置后。如:

a sleeping baby (=a baby who is sleeping)

a sleeping car (=a car for sleeping=a car which is used for sleeping)

3.作定语时,过去分词常表示动作发生的时间早于谓语动词,或者没有一定的时间性,只表示被动关系,有的只表示完成。如:

The flyover bridge built last year cost $12,000.

去年建的这座立交桥花了12000美元。(既表示被动又表示完成)

All the fallen leaves have been cleared away.

所有落叶都清走了。(表示完成,并没有被动意味)

I don’t like to hear songs sung by young people.

我不想听见年轻人唱这种歌。 (只表示被动,没有一定的时间性)

4.-ing形式作后置定语则可表示:正在进行或发生的行为(变为定语从句要用进行进态);现在(或当时)的状态(变为定语从句时常用一般时态)。如:

The car waiting nearby (=which is waiting nearby) is a Ford.

等着附近的那辆小汽车是福特车。

The music being played(=which is being played) on the piano sounds very familiar.

正在钢琴上演奏的这首曲子听起来很熟悉。

5.短暂性动词的-ing形式一般式一般不可用后置定语。如:

Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists.

应邀参加这次晚会的大多数人是著名的科学家。

不能说成:

Most of the people being invited to the party were famous scientists.

6.-ing分词的完成式一般不能后置定语,除非为非限制性的后置定语。如:

This is the question discussed (=which has been discussed) for thousands of years. The question, having been discussed for thousands of years, has now been solved. 讨论多年的这个问题现在已经解决了。

不可说成:

This is the question having been discussed for thousands of years.

7.being+adj.不能单独用作后置定语

不能说: Anyone being fit for this job can sign your name here.

应为:Anyone (who is) fit for this job can sign your name here. 任何胜任这项工作的人可以在这里签名。

8.分词作定语时,如有逗号与被修饰的名词分开,相当于一个非限制性的定语。如:

The story, written by a young girl, became popular with the young.

这个故事在年轻人间很流行,这是位小姑娘写的。

9.不定式作定语可以有自己的逻辑主语。如

It is spring, the time for us to plant trees.

春天正是植树的好季节。
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