考研语法小知识:情态动词+have done

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考研英语情态动词+have done的用法共分为9种,分别为:must have done、may/might have done、can/cannot have done、could have done、might have done、should/ought to have done、needn’t have done、had better have done、would rather have done,具体讲解如下:

情态动词+have done
用法
例句
must have done
表示主观上对过去已经发生的行为进行推测,意为“想必,准是,一定做了某事”。
He was subtilized someone must have entered his room.他敏锐地察觉到一定有什么人进过他的房间。
may/might have done
表示对过去已发生行为的推测,意为“也许/或许已经(没有)……”。一般用于肯定句或否定句中,不用于疑问句。用might则表示语气更加不肯定。
A radio announcer may have an audience of millions.一个广播员可能拥有数百万名听众。
can/cannot have done
表示对过去发生的行为的怀疑和不肯定,通常用在否定句和疑问句中。(can换成could时语气委婉)
It beats me how she can have done it.我感到莫名其妙,她怎么竟然做出这样的事。
could have done
可用于肯定句中,表示“可能已经……”之意,此外,还可以表示过去能做而没做的事,有一种对过去未付诸实施的事情的惋惜。
Our ancestors could have killed themselves off with their large brains and dangerous memes, but they pulled through.我们的祖先原本可能会因为自己的硕大头脑和危险的模因而灭亡,好在他们挺了过来。
might have done
表示“本来可能……,但实际上没有发生的事情”。另外,还可以表示“本来应该或可以做某事”之意,含有轻微的责备语气。
I might have done better if I’d stated my goal differently-perhaps “A- chieve exercise independence.”如果当时我把目标明确设定在“实现独立做健身运动”的话,最后的效果可能要好得多。
should/ought to have done
用于肯定句时,表示本该做某事,而实际上未做;用于否定句时,则表示不该做的事反而做了。
We should/ought to have done a better job explaining this up front and anticipating this problem.我们应该更早地意识到问题的存在并且更清楚地解释这个问题。
needn’t have done
表示做了本来不必去做的事。注意:didn’t need to do表示“没必要做而实际上也没有做某事”。
Your elder brother need not have come last night.你哥哥昨天晚上本来不必来的。
had better have done
用于事后的建议,含轻微责备的口吻,意为“当时最好做了某事”,其否定式had better not have done表示相反的含义。
You had better have my watch fixed by next Tuesday.你最好在下周二以前把我的手表修好。
would rather have done
表示“当时宁愿做了某事”,其否定式would rather not have done表示相反的含义,两者都表示“后悔”之意。
I would rather have seen it in English with Chinese sub-titles.我还是更喜欢听英文原声,配上中文字幕就行了。

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